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kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 10:48 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

˹ҷ 7

ӴѺͧ....


181. ​к​Է​ӺѴ​Ŵ​​Թ- 鹷ع​​ʹ​​​ѧ
182. ҡӨѴѵپת ͺ 2 . ɵҧӻ
183. ˹ҷФӤѭͧ
184. ͡շ áӨѴŧ
185. תǴẤµ֧ਹ

186. ͧԹѺ
187. pH : 繡ô-ҧͧԹ
188. ʹҪԹ ˹ǡЪЪ
189. ºѹ ŧҧա ͧҭ
190. ٭¨ҡǢͧǹǴ

191. Ӥѭع
192. Ӥѭ辺㹾תع
193. Ǿתع (Havesting)
194. áӨѴѵپתӤѭ㹡ɵâͧ
195. ԹԨäתԴҡժԵ

196. äתԷ (Plant pathology)
197. շŧǧ͡
198. "͹¾ѹ¡ӨѴŧ" ҧ͡ǹѡԹ
199. ١˭ ӸáԨ
200. ١ǡ ҧ ҡѧ

201. ١ 1 Թ֧ 4
202. ١Ѻоǹ
203. ͢͹աɵ
204. ѡԪҡʹѰաӨѴѵپת 3 Դ

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------






181. ​к​Է​ӺѴ​Ŵ​​Թ- 鹷ع​​ʹ​​​ѧ


ҳ​​​​ҧ​​Ҿ​Ǵ ҡ​​​​​​ҹ​​​​​​​Ե​駤 ​ѵ​ ​ת 鹷​ҧ​​ҡ​​ҳ​​​ҡ ​​​​ɵá​​​ö​١​ת ​​ɰԨ​

й酴.​ѭ​ Ѳ​​ ѡ​Ԫҡ​Ш​​ԷʵҾ ʶҺѹԨ ​Էʵ​​෤​​ (.) ​ ​Ԩ ​​Ըա​ҧ​Ҿ (Bioremediation) ​​ Ŵ​ҳ​​​​​ҡ​​​͹​ͧ​​​ҧ​ɵ​​​


ҧ​​ ​ ​ ​ .​​҅ Bioremediation​Ըա​Ŵ​ҳ​​​​​ҡ​​​͹​ͧ​​​ҧ​ɵ ​​Ԩ​​ҡ​ͧ​Թ​​​Ѻ​¹​çҧ​ҧ​​ͧ​​ѹ​​​​ٻ​ûСͺ​​​​​​​​ش

​ö​​​鹿​ѭ​​​͹​ͧ​​​ѹ​​Ǵ ​Ǵ​​​​​​​​​​​ͧ​​ҵ ​ Ըա​ѧ​​ö​ӨѴ​​ѹ​ҧ​ҧ​​·​​​​Դ​​з​​Ǵ ​º​Ѻ​​​​​Դ​​ ​ ​​ѧ​ź ​Ӥѭ​​鹷ع​​​​​ʹ​ҡ​

.​ѭ​ ͡​֧​​͹​​Ԩ​ ​á​​ҹ​​ҧ​ ͧ​ӺѴ​​​​ɵ ​​ѧ​ԡ​Ẻ​​ҡ​​​​Թ​​​ԷҾ​​​Ŵ​ҳ​ͧ​​-ູ​​ (MBC) ​​​​​ù (CB) ͹ ​​​Թ​​Ѵ​¡​​​ԷҾ​​​​ Glyphosate,  Permethrin Chlorpyrifos ​​​​ѧ​ǹ​​​к​ӺѴ ​ 10-45 ѹ




ͧӺѴաɵ.
​​​Դ​​ͧ​​ǹ​​​ѧѴ​ԨԵ​​ᾧྪ ​ǹ​ͧ​​ѧѴ​Ҫ ​ǹ​​Ҿ​Ẻ​¡​ͧ ​​ͧ​ѧ​Ƿ​ҹ​ҧ​​ͧ ​​​ҹ​​​Ẻ​​​Ҿ​​​ѡ​​ӨѴ​​ҧ​​ͧ​ʹ 24

ѧ​Դ 1  ​Ԩ​​纵​ҧ​Թй​ҡ​​ǹ​​Դ​​ҳ​​​​ɵ​ ​​ǹ​ҹ​Ԩ​​ͧ​Ժѵԡ​ҧ () ӡѴ ​ ͡ҡ​ö​Ŵ​ҳ​​​ູ​​ (MBC) ​Ǩ​​​​͹​​​ͧ​ŧ​ 10  ​ 1 ͹​​ ͧ​ѧ​​ѧ​ö​​ѡ Թ​​ѧ​​​ҹ 1 ​ѧ​​ԷҾ​​​ҹ​​​֧ 75-100 繵


ǹͧͧɵá.
ҡ​​Ԩ​ѧ​​Ҵ​​͹Ҥ​ѹ​​​​​ª​ҧ​​​​​آҾ​͹​ͧ​ЪҪ Ŵ​​§​ѹ​ҡ​​​ ​​​鹿​Ǵ ​​ѭ​з​Դ​​ҡ​​Ե​​​Ҥ​ɵá​​صˡ.

签Ԫ

Credit: Ѱ͹Ź



http://www.siam2day.com/%E0%B9%83%E0%B8%8A%E0%B9%89%E2%80%8B%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%9A%E2%80%8B%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%B2%E2%80%8B%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%B3%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%B1.html


䢤ش kimzagass 16/10/2011 8:06 am, 䢷 13
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 10:57 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

182. ҡӨѴѵپת ͺ 2 . ɵҧӻ





ɵáùաӨѴѵپת ͺ 2 ҹ ɵҧº 觼Ť»-;觅

ѹ 3 .. 54 Ա ¹٭ ҹ¡ŹԸԪԶ (BioThai) Ƕ֧ ʶҹóѭآҾͧɵáСäǺáӨѴѵپת Ѩغѹࡵáèӹǹҡ ռŵǨʹࡳʹ§͡Դäҡ աӨѴѵپת ҷ ä äҹ ä 觨ҡҹż¨ҡкСѹآҾ觪ҵ Ѩغѹռ¨ҡմѧ ҳ 8,546 աûҳ㹤繨ԧިҡҨ٧֧ 200,000 ֧ 400,000 µͻ ʹͧѺǨɵá 6 ѧѴ ӹǹ 606 çҧɵá ҹûͧѹСӨѴѵپתẺҹ㹾鹷 辺ɵá÷ 100% ҡͧҡɢͧաӨѴѵپת 15% дѺ繾çҡ 39% дѺ繾ç 14% աշ¶١ Ե ͡ ͺͧ


.ŹԸԪԶ ҡաӨѴѵپת繨ӹǹҡ Դšз Ѵ ѵҡ纻¢ͧ㹻Ѩغѹ ´ä٧᫧˹ä ˵ѡҨҡ٧֧ 60% ͡ҡѧ ٭ԹҡùաӨѴѵپתҧ 137,594,393 š ԴŤһҳ 16,815,769,077 ҹҷ ǹ˭Ҩҡѷѡ˭ҵ 6 ͧ

͡ҡѧա͹حҵ鹷¹äǶ֧ 27,000 ٧ҡشš٧Ҩչ 20,000 ¡â鹷¹ѧǢҴ䡡äǺ õǨͺ 㹴ҹ§ͧõҧ㹼żԵ 件֧Ҵ䡤ǺèѴ˹



http://kasetonline.com/2011/04/09/%e0%b8%99%e0%b8%b3%e0%b9%80%e0%b8%82%e0%b9%89%e0%b8%b2%e0%b8%a2%e0%b8%b2%e0%b8%81%e0%b8%b3%e0%b8%88%e0%b8%b1%e0%b8%94%e0%b8%a8%e0%b8%b1%e0%b8%95%e0%b8%a3%e0%b8%b9%e0%b8%9e%e0%b8%b7%e0%b8%8a-%e0%b8%9b/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 11:02 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

183. ˹ҷФӤѭͧ


1) ͧСͺͧ ͧҡѧžתͧդ§ѹ Сûҹѹ 鼹ѧç ѧ鹶ҾתҴת͹ ʹ лҡԭ ѧתդҹҹäŧ觢

* Ի 繻ªѹ֧ 33% Ъ´ٴѺҵþת Ф Ŵת

* ѧ Իͧҧ Ѻ§硹 ᷹Թ͵࿵ ҧҿ鹵ǡ

2) Ŵ繾ɢͧúҧҧ öӻԡҡѺô 鵡С͹ Ŵ繾ӵ鹾ת

3) ҹҹ͡Թ µҹҹ͡Թת״ҡԹ תٻҧԴ ѧ鹡÷תҡתԭԺٻҧ

4) ͹¤õ õչ оת駵 ҧ ǹӤѭ㹡͹ õ õչ ѧת͹ਹա

5) ҧҡ ྡ൵ͧСͺǹ˹觢ͧҡ ѧ鹡§ ջҡҡ

6) պҷͧç͡ Pollen Tube ͡״ ѧ鹡§ ֧üԴҡ ü ѵҡüԴҡ觢

7) պҷ㹡ç͡ ͧҡçͧ͡ ͧͧСͺѡ ѧ֧çͧ͡µç



http://kasetonline.com/2011/06/03/%e0%b8%ab%e0%b8%99%e0%b9%89%e0%b8%b2%e0%b8%97%e0%b8%b5%e0%b9%88%e0%b9%81%e0%b8%a5%e0%b8%b0%e0%b8%84%e0%b8%a7%e0%b8%b2%e0%b8%a1%e0%b8%aa%e0%b8%b3%e0%b8%84%e0%b8%b1%e0%b8%8d%e0%b8%82%e0%b8%ad%e0%b8%87/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 11:50 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

184. ͡շ áӨѴŧ





շ͡ç ͧ͡/Ǥ´͡ഫອ ʡ Chrysanthemum Դ C. cinerariaefolium 繾ת׹鹷ͺҡ˹ ١дѺ٧ 1,500 ˹дѺӷ ͺҾԻȷҧѹҡ͹Ѵҧ׹ҡ˹ǨѴ ͡͡ʹ駻 ١ҡҧᶺͿԡҵѹ͡ ह ᷹ ѹ 繵

͹Ӵ͡ҵҡǹʡѴշԹ (pyrethrins) դسѵ㹡áӨѴŧջԷҾ٧͡ķѧ еçҷкҷͧŧѹ зŧźҧǴ 2-3 ҷ е㹷ش ͧҡêԴ lipophilic esters ֧١ٴкҷͧŧҧǴ ùռŵѵʹ蹹ҡ 㹵Ѻͧѵ§١¹͹öշԹ վɨ֧աҧ öͧҵԼҹʧᴴФ͹ ֧ʡѴҡ͡շ繷ѺӨѴŧ㹺ҹ͹ ŧöӨѴҧ ا ͹ Ѵⴴ ᵹ ˹͹͡ ˹͹˭ ¨ѡ蹽 ˹͹ ˹͹ŧѹе鹶 ŧѹ ŧ ʹ 繵 㹻ȨչͧʡѴҡ͡շ㹡áӨѴاҹҹ 2,000 ǹûաùǹҩմ蹦ŧصˡüԵǹ ǹصˡٺ㹡áӨѴŧ蹡ѹ

ʡѴҡ͡շ ͧ͹š WHO ͧСɵ˻ЪҪҵ FAO Ѻͧһʹµѵ§ҡش շԹͧ͡շѺҧҡҤ٧ҧͧ Ѻ㹻ͧͧҨҡᶺͿԡҵѹ͡蹡ѹ ѺҴ͡շ繾תɰԨա˹觷ʹ й͡ҡ͹Ҥʴ ѧʹѺѵ§ա

Ѻ㹻ͧաùӴ͡շ ¾ѹ ١ ͧ١ҧҧ 2516-2518 çǧѲҤ˹ 㹾кҪҹ 鷴ͧ١ҾתɰԨһ١᷹ ·ͧ١Ẻ鹺ѹ 㹪ǧ͡͡ҡش繪ǧĴ͹͹չҤáҤ żԵҡѺ 335.25 š 1 㹢зहҷ١͡շʡѴշԹ͡ ͧö١żԵ͡շ§ 200 š 1 繼żԵ㹻á ǹ㹻յҹ鹼żԵŴŧҾҡȢͧջҳӽ٧ çû١ת᷹蹢ͧçǧѲҤ˹ͺҧҧͧЧѺ



http://www.sangkasi.com/make-money/218.html
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kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 2:26 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

185. תǴẤµ֧ਹ

ԷҾüԵ Ѩ¡üԵẤµ֧ਹ


Ƿҧ˹㹾ѲҡüԵҧɵ ͻء Ấ㹡ԭԺⵢͧת (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) ੾ҧ 㹡Ấµ֧ਹdzҡ (diazotrophic N2 - fixing bacteria) ҹԨͧ ѵػʧ ֡ҼŢͧû١Ấѧʧ Rhodopseudomonas palustris ͼͧẤµ֧ਹ Azospirillum brasilense Azospirillum amazonense ʹ ֡ҡûءẤµ֧ਹẤѧʧٻԹͧ (indigenous microorganism, IMO) ͡ԭԺоѲҡâͧ ҡ÷ͧ֡Ң typical time course ͧͨԹͧ (indigenous microorganism, IMO) 繵Ẻ㹡ͼͧẤµ֧ਹ Ấѧʧ㹡÷ͺдѺжҧ ҡš÷ͧ ͵ẺԹͧաԹպҷѡ 4

1) Ấ motile spirilla
2) ẤŤԡ ǡ lactobacilli
3) ʵǡ fission yeast 㹨չ Schizosaccharomyces
4) ʵǡ budding yeast

ҴѺԭԺⵢͧСҧẺἹ ҡ֡ͺط͡ԭԺⵢͧǷ١ š÷ͧ ͷҡû١ͺطͧ Rhodopseudomonas palustris ººѺ ǺǾ ŴաҤǺͻ١÷÷ ǹû١ Azospirillum brasilense Azospirillum amazonense ºº Ŵաҷ駤ǺŴաҡû١ Rhodopseudomonas 駢Ƿ١ Ҿ÷÷ š÷ͧ÷ͺû١㹢Ƿ١дѺжҧԹ˹ º ҧ û١ͼͧẤµ֧ਹ Azospirillum brasilense Azospirillum amazonense ѺͨԹͧ (IMO) оͧԭԺоѲҡá Ấµ֧ਹ Azospirillum ŴշشͨԹͧ (IMO) ФǺ ҧѴਹ

ǹԹͧºѺǺԭԺ⵾Ѳҡ ᵡҧҡǺ ѡ ººҳਹ㺵ʹءû١ǾѹǴ͡ 105 ҡû١ͨԹͧ (IMO) 觼ջҳਹ٧ҧѴਹ Ҥѭ : Ấѧʧ Ấµ֧ਹ Թͧ Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum amazonense, ԭԺоѲҡâͧ



http://www.lartc.rmutl.ac.th/
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 2:49 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

186. ͧԹѺ



ͧ...ɵԹ ?
ҡʢͧ繷Ѻͧ ͧҤɵ չӤѭʹЪǹ֡֡ŧ´ ͧҡա֡§ҹšԨ͡ҡ ֧šзԴҡҤɵâͧѡԪҡèҡš շ駼šзǴкȹͧǧ µʶҹСóͧš੾С÷ª鹺ҡ šзçҧФسҾͧԹ¹ŧ ʹµآҾͧѹԴҡû͹ þɵҧ㹼żԵҧɵ

觼ա¹ŧĵԡúԹɵâͧ ʹѡѹҳͧԹɵ÷ʹҡþɵҧդҷҧõҴСŧعѺͧ ɵԹ ɵԹ ?

˾ѹɵԹҹҪҵ (I.F.O.A.M.) ͸Ժ¶֧ФӨӡѴ


ɵԹ кɵ÷Ե ¤׹ҧǴ ѧ ɰԨ 鹷ѡûѺاкاԹ ӤѭѡҾҧҵԢͧת ѵ йȹɵá ŴѨ¡üԵҡ¹͡ ա§ѧ ءҵ͡żԵ оѲҤҹҹäѵ٢ͧתѵ§

㹢ҧ ѡҡŷʹͧѺ͹䢷ҧɰԨ ѧ Ҿҡ Ѳͧ蹢ͧ դйӷᨡᨧѡԺѵԷӤѭ

ա§ͧ ѧ 㹡кǹüԵ ջͧѹСӨѴѵپת ֧ѹת ѹѵաõѴʹѴŧѹء

§µçͻͧѹû͹յҧ 駨ҡ㹤͹ͨҡ¹͡ ѲкüԵǷҧɵ÷׹ 鹤ҡ¢ͧѹתоѹѵ㹡кǹüԵ ѲкüԵ鹡þ觾ҵͧ ͡êͫ觡ѹСѹ㹡ͧѨ¡üԵ èѴʴطӻºاԹ èѴͧäѵپת ѹת ѹѵ çҹ Թع 繵

鹿ѡҤشóͧԹԹѵ ѡ ¤͡ ¾תʴҧͧ ʹѴաع¹ҵŧɵԴª٧ش աªԴͧѵŧ繻ªкȹ ѡŢͧкȹ ʹŴѭҡкҴͧäŧ ¸㹡§ѵ

ɵԹ ջªҧ ?
ͧͧ͹Ѻ仴 觷תͧ㹡ԭԺżԵ
ҵѡ 觻Сͺ ਹ (Nitrogen : N),
ʿ (Phosphorus : P)
(Potasium : K)

ѺþѲкҡ ӵ ͡ м ҵͧ 觻Сͺ
(Calsium : Ca),
(Magnesium : Mg)
жѹ (Sulphur : S)

ѺþѲ С ҵ 觻Сͺ
( Ferrus : Fe ),
ѧҹ ( Manganese : Mn ),
ѧ ( Zinc : Zn ),
ͧᴧ ( Cupper : Cu ),
͹ ( Boron : Bo ),
Ժ ( Molibnum : Mo ),
Թ ( Chlorine : Cl )

ѺҧçԵҹҹä 㹢ǡѹ Թ ѵظҵطԴͧ繪ҵ ҡҵصҧµ繪硪鹹 ѺԹѵط¼ѹ繪鹺ҧš ҡй㹻ҳ Ъ·תաá͡ԴԭԺ


ͧСͺͧԹդѹѺԭԺⵢͧת ͹ҳ ѧ
- ͹Թѵ 觨 45 »ҵ ǹ˭繪ǹµǷҧ ԡ зҧբͧԹԴҧ ªѡ 繸ҵâͧת

- Թѵ 觨 5 »ҵ ǹ˭繪ǹҡ¢ͧɫҡתҡѵؾѧѺѹ㹴Թ ªѡ 繵ҹ͹ԹѵѺǡѹ 駴ٴѺѡдѺ㹴Թ

- 觨 25 »ҵ ǹ˹觨áͧҧͧ͹Թ (͹) աǹ˹觨ЫѺ͹ҤͧԹ

- ҡ 觨 25 »ҵ ǹ˭ ҫ͡ਹ, ਹ Ф͹͡䫴 ªѡ 觡кǹ¢ͧҡתҡѵ ¡÷ӧҹͧԹ Թ ժԵ˹·ҡöͧ繴µ ǹ˭繾ǡ Ấ 繵 ªѡ ɫҡתҡѵԹѵ ѺŴ, ÷, Ы࿵ 繻ª͡Ժⵢͧת

ѧ ػ㨤Ӥѭ ԹշѺл١ת Թոҵäúתͧ Թѵ դ㹴Թ ҾԹǹ ҡȶՓ ɵԹöѺҾԹԴҾѧ ੾ҧ ǹӤѭͧä׹ҾѧѺԹ Թ

Թ Ѻ ᵡҧѹҧ ?
ѧ 繻·ҡѧҨҡ͹Թҧ繸ҵѡתͧ 㹷͸ҵ N P K ¨աԸСкǹüԵлاѴǹͧҵѡе仵ԴЪǧآͧת 仨¡ѹ ٵû” 觤¢ͧٵû¨¶֧ѴǹͧҵѡеǷͻ 100 ǹ ҧ ٵ 151515 ͸Ժ ͻ 100 ǹ ਹ (N) 15 ǹ, ʿ (P) 15 ǹ (K) 15 ǹ 45 ǹ ա 55 ǹͨ 㹷 Թ ٵ 1688 ¶֧ͻ·繸ҵ§ 32 ǹ ͡繴Թ ѧ Ҩҧ 40 ǹ 100 ǹͧը繴Թ дԹǨǹ㹡û 紻դᵡǹ㹢ҹ ֧˹ਹ (N) 繸ҵѡ˹ͻ µ仡ѺҡԹ Թͧ繻ª͵鹾ת 㹢з Թ ҡ֡ҾѴਹ ¤͡ ѡ ¾תʴ лªҾ 繻·ҡѵ ɫҡתҡѵ ɼżԵҡɵѪת ҹѡ¼ؾѧǧ˹觨µǡԹѵ ҵ÷תѺҡԹ Ҩҡҵصҧѵ ɫҡתҡѵ ɼżԵҡɵѪת 觨ոҵѺתúء ੾§ҵѡҹ

ҧá ҵ÷ҡԹö˹ٵ÷Ѵਹ͹ 駹Ѵǹͧҵ÷Ѻ繻ҡ ҷաõǨͺسҷҧâͧԹ¡ͧɵ зǧɵˡóɵ Ѵ NPK ٧شԹ 6 102 ҹ

ǻ յç˹ ?
觷תͧҡش㹡ԭԺ ҵ÷ءҧ§ ͷмԵ͡繴͡繼Ѻɵáü١ ੾ҧ ҵѡ NPK ͧöҵѡ繻ªתҡҷתͧ 觹ǹբͧ

㹢稨ԧ ҵѡͧСͺǹ˭㹻 㹷ҧѺѹ ٵ÷ѹҤɵѴǹͧҵѡءѹԹ 50 (ᨧ㹢ҧ) ǹ繴Թ (Clay) 觷 дԹǹͧ繢¢ͧ дԹǫ͹ҤҴ硨áѴ㹪ͧҧͧԹ ʹԹѺʹٴ鹨ҡԹ ¹Ҿ¹ִ紴ԹѺǡѹ蹢 ѺѺҡȷ㹴Թ͡仨ҡ

ѧ ŧɵ÷այԴ͡ѹµʹ Թա¹Ҿ秡дҧ кҡӵ鹢ͧתç л١żԵ



¹ : http://www.som-network.com/articles/organic-chemistry.php

http://www.farmkaset.org/contents/default.aspx?content=00189
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 2:54 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

187. pH : 繡ô-ҧͧԹ

pH ͡繡ô-ҧ ¢ͧҾͪ͸Ժ´ѧ ǧͧͪͧԹ·仨դҧҳ .-

Ҿ繡ô-ҧͧԹöǨͺ ѡ͡繡ô-ҧ¤ҷ¡ ͪ ͹¹ѭѡɳѧ pH ¢ͧҾͪ͸Ժ´ѧ ǧͧͪͧԹ·仨դҧҳ .-. pH 7.0 ֧͡Ҿ繡ҧͧԹ Ǥ ԹյǷ繡ôеǷ繴ҧ繻ҳҡѹʹ ҷӡ . . ͡Ҿ繡ôͧԹ 㹡óչʹԹ pH 6.0 ҡзҺҴԹ繡ôҧ͹ Ҿ繡ôҡҴԹ pH 7.0 (繡ҧ) Ժ pH ͧԹŴŧҾ繡ôعç觢ҹ Թ pH 5.0 繡ôҡ pH 6.0 Ժҡ ҢͧԹ pH 7.0 ФҢͧ pH ҧѹ˹˹¨к͡繡ôᵡҧѹԺ ǡѺԹ pH ٧ . к͡Ҿ繴ҧͧԹդ٧ . 繴ҧ٧ҹ Ш繴ҧҡԺҵͤᵡҧѹ˹˹¢ͧ pH дѺعçͧ繡ô-ҧͧԹö͡ҡҢͧ pH ѧ

Ңͧ pH ͧԹöѴͧѴ繡ô ҤʹöشǨͺԴ¹յǨͺ¡ pH Test Kit ͪشǨͺ pH

繡ô-ҧͧԹռŷµç͡ԭԺⵢͧת١㹴Թ Т͡ػѧࢻҹ
繡ôͧԹҾ͹Ѻôҧ͹ ôª Ƿʴ繡ô ਹ͹ (H+) ԷԾҧҡ㹡÷Դ¹ŧӤѭҧբͧԹ Ǥ աµǢͧҵõҧ 㹴Թ͡ ҧ繻ª ҧҨ繾ɵ;ת ҴԹ繡ôعçзոҵؾǡ ҹ ͡㹹㹴ԹҡԹ Դ繾ɢת١ ҹ繸ҵþתӤѭ תͧ㹻ҳ 㹴ԹҡԹ仡Դ繾ɢ鹡Ѻת ԹդҾͪ (pH) ӡ . ŧѡѭҴѧǢҧ

繻ªͧҵõҧ 㹴Թתд֧ٴҡ˹ ѺҾдѺ pH ͧԹҧҡ ҵþת㹴ԹФҾ繻ª;ת ջҳҡ pH ǧ˹ ҴԹ pH ٧͵ӡҪǧ ¹Ҿٻҡתд֧ٴ繻ª ҵؿʿʨٻͧ·ת֧ٴ ʹԹ pH ҧ .-. ҴԹ pH ٧ ͵ӡҪǧ 繻ªͧҵؿʿ㹴ԹŴŧ 价ӻԡҡѺҵصҧ 㹴Թ¢ ҾûСͺ¹ҡ ¿࿵ŧ㹴Թ繻ª;ת١ҡشʹԹ pH 㹪ǧѧ ¿࿵ŧ㹴Թ繻ª;ת ٭·ӻԡҡѺҵصҧ 㹴Թ ҾûСͺ¹ҡ¡ % ¡ҿ࿵١֧ ¿࿵ж١֧ҡ仡ҹա ҴԹ pH ٧͵ӡҪǧ pH ѧǢҧ

ҵþתǡŸҵ (micronutrients) ѧ ҹ ͹ 繵 ͡Ҿ繻ª;ת 㹴Թҧ§Ѻͧâͧת ʹԹ pH 繡ôҧ͹֧ôҹҧҡʹԹ pH 繡ҧ繴ҧ 㹷ҧçѹҵԺԹ 繻ª;תբ ҴԹ pH 繡ҧ֧ҧҧ͹ ҧáػººҧ繡ô繴ҧͧԹ ԹѺ١תè pH 㹪ǧ繡ôҧ͹֧繡ôҹҧ

Ӥѭͧ pH ͧԹѧǢͧѺ÷ӧҹ繻ªͧԹҧ 㹴Թ ûСͺԹҧ 㹴Թ¼ؾѧ·ըԹҧ · зԹǡѧµǡлŴ¸ҵõҧ ͡ҫҡתö֧ٴ ǡ¤͡ ѡ ŧ㹴ԹǷת͡բ鹹 ͧҡԹǡз¤͡µ лŴ¸ҵ͡繻ª;תա˹ ÷¤͡ռŵ͡ԭԺⵢͧתҡһ ͧ˵ط¤ͧ͡Թµ¡͹ 觼ԴѺ¹Ǿתö֧ٴҸҵèҡѹ Թҧ »¤͡Թҧ ʹ㹴Թ鹨зӧҹջԷҾ pH ͧԹҧ pH 6-7 ҴԹ繡ôعç֧ôعçҡ Թ㹴Թзӧҹŧ ¤͡Թ㹴Թµ繻ª;תҡ

ʹԹ繡ôعçСôعçҡ ѡоҾת١ԭԺ Ч͡ҷ ö䢴Թ繡ôҡԹ仹 (pH ӡ .) дѺ pH ٧ ¡ûСͺǡٹ (Ca(OH2)) Թٹ躴´繽 (CaCO3) лٹ (marl) ûǡѹѺԹٹ ûСͺǡŧ㹴Թķ繴ҧШ价ӻԡҡѺô þǡô㹴ԹŴŧ þǡҧ٧



ҧԧ : http://guru.sanook.com/

http://www.farmkaset.org/contents/default.aspx?content=00408
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 04/08/2011 7:03 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

188. ʹҪԹ ˹ǡЪЪ


ءȷšԹѡҧѹ شʹشš Ԣͧ ʪҵسҷҧ٧ 稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ çպҷҧӤѭդسҷҧʪҵԴ觢ա ôӡä鹤Ҩʹ 5 Դ һاǼѹѴǹ˹ اԹͧǢ شʹ ʹ÷ԹǪ˹Ƿ駪ͤ ҧ觡ѺͧäǺ˹ѡ ժҧ繷ҧ ǡͧاອҷԾ á 6

ͧ÷պҷӤѭ㹡üԵʹ稾ҪԹͧ͡Ҵ ҧŹԸŻҪվ稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ ҹҧ 1, 2 . 32 ʹԷ . .ͧ .غҪҹ 鹷 210 պҷҧºȨҡ»С ¡ä鹤˹ҷ鹾Ѻɵ ѵ ͡дѺ תоתǹ Ѻʶҹʹ㨷ش駡ô٧ҹҸԵԸա С÷ͧǷҵ蹵ҵ仾ѹ 鹷͡ɵ 118 繻 64 鹷͡û 14 ͡繶觡ҧ ѧࡵҷ繾鹷٧˹дѺӷ س٧˹ҡ

üԵʹȨǷ ҧ´˹ǡЪЪ˹㹧ҹҹ ҡ¶֧ 2-3 ç ʹ ѲҡɰԨ紻 ԵתѡҾкع¹ ١תɰԨ͹ѧ÷ӹ ١ѡʹþҤҴ㹵Ҵ ҷ ǽѡ ѡҧ ѡͧ §ٻçþѲҼԵ¾鹺ҹ Ӥúǧõ١͹ͧ §ͧ ͧ ʹ件֧ÿ֧͡÷Сâ¼Ҩ繼׹ ѧࡵҡç ըҡתẺҳ ҵͧǨշӨҡྡ ժǧӨҡ١͹ ͧӨҡ͡鹡ҹ ͹Өҡ鹢ع



੾СüԵʹҪԹͪҧ繷ҧ ǡͧاອҷԾ á 6 ӡѹҧԶվԶѹҡ ͧӡäѴ͡ѹǪʹ 5 ѹ ҡ¨ѧѴ ͡ǢǴ͡ 105 Т˹ .6 ͧغҪҹ Һ١㹿ͧٹŻҪվͧ ͡ᴧҡԹ ͡ʹǡҪ ١غҤ٧˹дѺӷ 900-1,000 㹾鹷ȨҡШҡ§§ ˵ؼŢǡ繢Ƿ٧ õչ٧ դõ ԵԹҵ٧

شҾǧͧʹҪԹշͧ索Ǩ͡¡͹ ֧һا繢ອҷԾ Ѻ͸ԺԪҡáɵ 繡 GABA 索Ƿҧиҵ Ѻاçҧõõչ§¾سҷҧҡ áٵչ͡Ҩҡ索ǴԸոҵ¨Ūվ ͷ ١ǷШ͡õչҡöҧô ҧ͹ ǵչ ҵع§͹͡ ռҧԤѹҧҵԢͧת ԸաôѧǨз᷹Թ٧ʢ ջԡҷ繡ô硹·ҧ´ٴҵա ͹ӢاзСѹ ǹҳҡ Ըا俻ҹҧ 索ء§ᵡ Ǩʪҵ״״



ä鹤Ԩ¢ͧѡԷʵɵк ʹҪԹռšеӡдѺͷͤ Ѻʵռŵ͡ҹ¸ҵ ੾ʵշջѭһǴͧͺ͹ ͡ҡ ѧеѺѺ͹좨Ѵþ͡ҡҧ Ǻӵ㹡ʹ ¢Ѻ觤آ㨾 ͧѹ˭ Ŵ͡㹡ä䢢ѡʺ ع¹ͧԵ ŴҤʹ Се鹡âѺӴѹ ԧӺդسѵҡҹ Ѵҷ繷ʹҹ.


Ҩʹ
ʹ 5 ѹ ѴҧҨҡ¨ѧѴ èзʹҪԹسҷҧ٧ ҧ´˹ǡЪЪ еͧҹԸҢǷ 5 ѹ 4-8 . ú Ң˹觤׹ҡ͡ ѧࡵҢǷ ҡ͡繢Ƿҹ繢º Ƿ駷ѧ繢͡ʧ¢Ƿ繢 ҡ͡ ҡ١ѧú

ͨҡ鹹Ң仹 5-7 ҷ ¹觴Ǵ觢˹ẺǺҹ ͹Ẻصˡ˭ҧ 鹨ҡǹù仹 ҢǷ 5 ѹ仵ҡᴴŴŧ§ 13-15% ͨҡ鹨Ѵʹ· 5 ѹҡ ¡оѹѴἹ˹ҷѴü 5 ѹҴ¡ѹ ٵáüǷҹäԴҹҹԴŧ Ŵմҹҡҡش ¢йѧԴٵ

ͼʹǷ 5 ѹҹǹûاº ѴúèضاҴԺا 1 . ͹͡˹ѹ稾Ը úèعҡ繢Ƿеͧ仢ѧҧ ͷҧ觫ͨкèҪкèحҡ ǹ˹仢·ѧҧ ҹ鹢ǡҷԾ ʹ稾ҪԹբ·ҡ͹ зҧ繷ҤҶا 70 ҷ اԹҡ ͧǢǡ͹ §ŧǡاԹ.


""


ʾ.Ѱ :http://www.thairath.co.th/news.php?section=agriculture05&content=49104

http://www.kubotaudon.com/news-farm3.html
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 08/08/2011 5:50 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

189. ºѹ ŧҧա ͧҭ


ŧҧա -

ѭ кҴͧѹӻѧ ѺѹС繻ѭ˭ҧšзѺɵáü١ѹӻѧ 㹾鹷ҧ ǻ ѵҡкҴҡҧͧ ¨ѧѴ ੾ҤҧҤѹ͡§˹ ֧ͧաûСࢵ¾ԺѵԨҡҷ¢ͧ§·

ѧ ֧Ѻ繻ѭӤѭеͧѺͨҡءҤǹͪ¡ѹ䢻ѭҹǧ´

͡˹ͨҡзǧɵˡó㹰ҹ˹§ҹѡ㹡ô䢻ѭ Ѻɵâͧɵá÷ǻ պҷ㹡䢻ѭҡкҴͧ ӹѡҹСԨ觪ҵ (Ǫ.) Ѻա˹˹§ҹպҷӤѭ㹡ê䢻ѭҴ 蹡ѹ ¡ùӼŧҹԨ·ʺǡѺûͧѹӨѴ ·ʹѧɵá÷ʺѭҡкҴ ѹ¡ ¾鹷ö䢻ѭҡкҴͧ

" ѵٸҵ͡ѭҡкҴͧѹӻѧҧ ׹" ա˹ç÷Թ䢻ѭҡкҴͧ ʹѺʹعͧӹѡҹСԨ觪ҵ (Ǫ.)

Ѻ 鹷Թçù ࢵ 3 ѧѴҤҧ Сͺ ࢵ;ǹ ͺ; Ңѭ ¡ ѧѴҭ ʹҹҧ ѧѴؾó ͺҹ ѧѴط¸ҹ

˹§ҹѡѺԴͺ㹡ôԹ çä ٹԨ¤ǺѵپתªԹ觪ҵ ˹˹§ҹѧѴӹѡҹ Ǫ.

.. طԾ ԵԵҾ ŢҸԡäСԨ觪ҵ çáѵٸҵ͡ѭҡкҴͧѹ ӻѧҧ׹ ç÷ԸաäǺѹӻѧкҴŴ ѵٵҵҤǺкҴͧѹӻѧ ͷ¡ "Ը" çõͧ 3 ͹Ҥ 2553-ѹ¹ 2555

Ѻѵػʧͧ çªѵٸҵ㹡äǺѹӻѧ ԴäǺҾ öŴЪҡâͧѹӻѧкҴԹ 30% 㹻շ 1 Թ 10% 㹻շ 2 ŴѭҡкҴͧѹӻѧŴæŧ㹾鹷 ١ѹӻѧ㹨ѧѴҭ

"֧ö·ʹ෤ա ªѵٸҵɵá㹨ѧѴҭ ӹǹ 200 㹾鹷ҳ 20,000 ¨Ѵͺɵá÷ӡüԵѵٸҵ ŧҧա ᵹ¹ õ ǹ ǹ ŵ ͺªͧŧѵٸҵ¡ûŴѵٸҵ ԴԹšûŴѵٸҵ㹾鹷ç"

"ѧҡ Թç 1 㹾鹷ӡԨзͧѵٸҵԹջҳͧ ѹӻѧŴŧɵáѺй෤մѧ仵ʹ ¡üԵŧѵٸҵ͹任ŧѹӻѧ" Ţ Ǫ.

.. Ѳ Ҵ ӹ¡ٹԨ¤ǺѵپתªԹ觪ҵ ӹѡҹСԨ觪ҵ (Ǫ.) ѺѨӤѭ鹷кҴǧҧԴҡâ 鹷١ա͹ѹѹӻѧ ͹ е駵Դ仡Ѻ͹ѹ ͡ҡ ѧ繾й駡Шѹӻѧŧҧ §

駹 龺աŧ¢ͧѹӻѧ ҧعç¨ѧѴ 鹻 2551 зդعçҡТǧҧ鹷١ѹ ӻѧ¨ѧѴ

"ѧ ֧繷еͧաäǺѹӻѧԴкҴ Ըա÷跴᷹Ŵ㹡áӨѴѹӻѧ Ŵ鹷عüԵͧɵá ҧ͡˹觷դʹͧѺǤԴüԵתʹ ѵػʧ㹡äǺŧѵپתҧջԷҾ ԸաäǺѵپתªԸ (biological control) ¶֧ ªҡѵٸҵ (predator) ¹ (parasite) ʹä (pathogen) 㹡äǺѵپת"

Ѻ ôԹçҨ֧й աý֡ͺɵá ӡüԵѵٸҵ Դҧ ѹ ŧҧա Plesiochrysa ramburi (Schneider) ŧҧա Mallada basalis (Walker) ᵹ¹ Allotropa sp. õ Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans) ǹ Wollastoniella rotunda Yasunaga & Miyamoto ǹ Orius maxidentex Ghauri ǹ Geocoris ochroterus

駹ǷǺҹТ¾ѹл㹾鹷ͧҹ ҧ 8 Ӻ˹ͧç ;ǹ ѧѴҭ ˹ҹ»ʺѭкҴͧѹӻѧ ѺҡçŧҧաҪ䢻ѭҡ кҴʺ

ءѹѹӻѧöԭԺ żԵҧ »ȨҡкҴ֧ 80 ͧ鹷ŧҧաʷ 1,000

駹 ¤ҧٹԨ¤ǺѵپתªԹ觪ҵ ӹѡҹɵ;ǹ աйӷԸաûͧѹӨѴ С§ŧҧաѺǺҹ

سѳ حʴ ˭ҹ 8 Ӻ˹ͧç ;ǹ ͹ʹյ֧кҴͧѹӻѧͧɵá ҹҧ ԴкҴͧҧعç㹻 2551 繵 á ԸաûͧѹӨѴ¡éմ ʺ ѧкҴҧͧ ͧѹӻѧ١

" Ѻҡ˹ҷ 2 ˹§ҹ Ǻҹʹ㨵ٹԵѵپת 鹡Т¾ѹŧҧաѡ ·ҧٹԨ¤ǺѵپתªԹ ͺѹŧҧա§"

Ѩغѹç͹ §ŧҧաʢͧǺҹҧҹ سзԹ ͹ سº 繼ӡɵøҵԺҹҧ ʶҹ觹㹻Ѩغѹ¹ɵá㹨ѧѴ ҭ§ ͹෤Ԥ§㹾鹷ͧͧ ·ҹɵáҴ٧ҹҧͧ

Ѻç ͹ա§ŧҧա աç§ѹ 㹨л¾ѹԹ͹ §麹١ѡͧ 駹 ѡͧ§鹵ͧ͡Ẻѧʹ ͹訹Թ

"ѡӤѭش ͧ͹Ѻŧҧա ͹öʹѹӻѧ͹кҴ ŧҧաʡԹ ͹ ҡ ͧ仢͹ҡӺ ֧ͧ¹§͹١ѡ᷹ͧ ªǺҹͧŧҧա任ŧͧ ͧ١ѡͧš" سзԹ

駹 㹡§鹨й١ѡͧҧ 觨ʹѹӻѧ ҧҹҧ й١ѡͧҹ 駨ТҴٴԹ§ҡѡͧ Т¾ѹ躹١ѡͧ١

"ѧҡѡͧ 訹 й㹡ç§ѹŧҧա 觨кش駵´ ѹ¨ѵǹ ѡͧ 1 ١ ¾ѹ 5 觾ѹСԹ ҧ ˹觨ҧ 400-500 ͧ

Ѻѡͧ§ Ͷ١ٴ§ ١价 йѵشԺ㹡÷ӻѡ ӡѺѹӻѧա˹

"ͧҡ§ŧ ҧադ´͹ҡ еͧ෤Ԥ Ҩ֧¢ ¡û¹ ᷹йҧѹӻѧ ͹ѺѡԪҡ÷ ҨԸաùӵ·Ժ㹡ç§任᷹ ¨ԸաèѺͧͨѺŧҧա ǹ任ŧ١ѹ Ѻ㹡ç鹵͹ԴҨⵢ᷹ǷҨѺ任 ҷ㹡û¤ ǧ ҡ任µ͹ᴴѴ ŧҧաʨʹ"

駹 㹡ûŧҧաʹ سзԹ͡ ͧҧ 15-30 ѹ ֧繼 觵ͧա仵Ǩŧ١ѹӻѧءѹ

" ѧࡵҡʹѹӻѧ˧ԡ蹨Ф״͡͹" سзԹ

"ء ѹաкҴ ҡѧҵááûͧѹҧ ¨йŧҧա任ŧ١ҧͧ ´٨ҡӹǹ駷辺ŧ ҡ¡л»ҳ 30 ѹ ҡաкҴԴ鹺ҧ л·ء 15 ѹ ͡ҡͧ§ŧҧա ա觷ҡѧԹä Ըժغ͹ѹѹӻѧջͧѹ駡͹١ Ǻ仴"

ҡաèѴûͧѹͧкҴͧ աèѴôŧѹӻѧҧ żԵµ 6 ѹ" سзԹ Ƿ駷

Ѻ ɵáü١ѹӻѧջѭͧ öԴ ٹԨ¤ǺѵپתªԹ觪ҵ ӹѡҹСԨ觪ҵ (Ǫ.) . (02) 942-8252 䫵 www.thaibiocontrol.org



http://info.matichon.co.th/techno/techno.php?srctag=05040010854&srcday=&search=no
http://iwgarden.blogspot.com/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 08/08/2011 5:53 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

190. ٭¨ҡǢͧǹǴ

... . ǹش
ٹԨͧѡáɵԷҡѧ
ҤԪǡɵ ǡʵ Է¢͹


繾תդӤѭͷɰԨ ѧ Сͧͧ üԵ¢鹵͹ 繢鹵͹Ӥѭ觼ŵͤسҾлҳͧżԵ ҡҳüԵǷ繨ӹǹҡͧ ҡԴ٭¨ҡǨ觼ŵͤ·ҧɰԨͧȷ㹴ҹҳŤ繨ӹǹҡ 㹻ѨغѹͧǹǴѧѺҡɵáҧաҹ价ءҤͧ ͧǹǴǹͧѡ÷ͧ¹ѹһ繵鹡ѧ㹡âѺ͹зӧҹ Сͺ仴¡кǹõѴ § Ǵ Ѵ¡͡ҡҧ зӤҴ͡ նѧͧѺ͡ҹкǹ÷ աúèآ͡ŧҪкè ա÷ӧҹ㹵ͧ öС÷ӧҹ繷Ѻ· 㹺ҧ鹷ŧҢҴյҡҹͧǹǴաŧŧբҴ˭աõѴТش㹹͡ 駹СͧǹǴɵáŴ¨ҡԸաçҹ ͡ҡѧ繡÷ӧҹ ҡ Ǵ öӢ仨˹ѹ աɵáҪվ蹹͡ҡл١Ǩ֧繵ͧպͷ任СͺҪվ ͡ҡžաҹ˹觨ҡͧǹǴ͡͡ʪ繵鹢͢紨ҡԸçҹաҳ 9 繵 (ԹԵ Թó Ф, 2542) 駹Сçҹͧաõҡ͹ 觵ҡҹ觷繵鹢 Ŵŧͧҡᵡҧ͹ҧҡͧҾҡҡҧѹСҧ׹Ĵ ǹͧǹǴɵáù¢Ƿѹѧ çշѺͨеͧӢǷդ٧ͺŴ 㹡ͺŴ鹨з索١з͹ҡҡѺҡõҡŧ 觼繵鹢Ƿ٧ 㹻ѨغѹҴͧǹǴҹҳ 10,000 ͧ 㹻 ͺԵ㹻 ҹѡɳТͧѺҧǹǴẺҨµ˹¾鹷

ͧǹǴ ͧк÷ӧҹ Ǵ зӤҴͧ ¾ѲͧǹǴҨҡͧͧҧ شк§ѲҨҡͧǹǴͧȷҧᶺѹ ¹Ӫǹ駢ͧͧǹǴ ö¹ͧѡáŵҧ ҴѴŧ ǹشǴЪشӤҴѴŧҨҡͧǴẺŵ᡹ͧ«繡þѲлѺاҨҡͧǴẺŵ᡹ ͧʶҺѹԨ¢ǹҹҪҵ International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) ѲлѺاͧǹǴ СѺҾ÷ӧҹ㹻

٭¨ҡǢͧǹǴ
ͧǹǴػó觼ŵͤ٭¨ҡǷӤѭ 3 ǹ ѧ
1) ش 㹡÷ӧҹСͺ ˹ҷе鹾ת鹾תҪشմ شմѴ תж١觵ѧ§˹Ǻ鹾תѧǹҧͧشѺҪش§͡Ҵҵ鹾ת觵ѧشǴ

2) شǴ ǹ˹ҷ㹡¡شҡҧ ¡÷ӡÿҴբͧ١Ǵع§ҴաѺçǴ¡͡ҡǧ ǹ紷١ǴǶ١¡͡ҡشǴ¼ҹçǴ˹ҷ㹡áͧҧŻ仡Ѻ 紷ҹçǴŧѧشӤҴ

3) شӤҴ СͺػóӤѭ 2 ǹ çӤҴ˹ҷ¡ͷ͹ҧѧùǴ͡ҡ ӧҹѺشѴçӤҴ ªشѴɽ պ ɿҧ ͻ ¡ҡ͡价ͧ

㹡üԵǢͧվѹآǷ㹡л١ҡ¾ѹ ö繡ѹآ˭ 2 ѹآ Ǿѹؾͧ ТǾѹ١ 觾ѹآҹռŵͤ٭ǡѹ
ҡǨ٭¨ҡͧǹǴѺǾѹآǴ͡ 105 繾ͧӤѭشͧࢵ觡ͧ ТǾѹت¹ҷ 1 繢Ǿѹ١Ӥѭͧࢵ鹷ѧѴ͹ Թ ä ѧʴ㹵ҧ 1


ҧ 1 ٭¨ҡǢ ͧǹǴ

ҡҧ 1 ǢǾѹت¹ҷ 1 ҡ÷ӧҹͧشǴ觼ŵͤ٭ҡش֧ 91 ͧ٭ҡǢǾѹت¹ҷ 1 ͤԴ繤٭ 6.20 繵ͧżԵ 繤٭·͹ҧ٧ ǹ÷ӧҹͧش ЪشӤҴ觼ŵͤ٭ҡѡҡѺ 4.8 4.2 ͧ٭ҡ

ǢǾѹت¹ҷ 1 ӴѺ Ţͧ٭ᵡҧҡͧǹǴѺǾѹآǴ͡ 105 ٭ǹ˭Դҡ÷ӧҹͧشǷդ٭ 58.8 ͧ٭ҡǢǾѹآǴ͡ 105 ͤԴ繤٭ 1.86 繵ͧżԵ ͧŧ繤٭·Դҡ÷ӧҹͧشǴ ЪشӤҴҡѺ 34.2 7.0 ͧ٭ҡǢǾѹآǴ͡ 105 ӴѺ 駹ͧҨҡǾѹآǴ͡ 105 繢Ǿѹؾͧǧء͢ǾѹعǴ ֧դ٭¨ҡش٧ҡùǴСäѴ¡㹪شǴ ǹǾѹت¹ҷ 1 繢ǹһѧ͢Ǿѹʧ 繾ѹ١ǧҡء͢ǾѹعǴҡҾѹؾ֧ͧդ٭¨ҡùǴФѴ¡㹪شǴ٧ҡ (ԹԵ Ф, 2546)

ѧ㹡ҹ Ѻ þѲ͡ԨŴ٭¨ҡͧǹǴ֧鹻Ѻ ֡੾ػóռŵ;ѹآ㹡 鹻Ѻ֡ҪشͷӡǢǾѹؾͧ Ф鹻Ѻ֡ҪشǴͷӡǢǾѹ١


͡ҧԧ
ԹԵ Թó, Ծ ͧѹ, ǹش, ҨԵ . 2546. Ţͧѵҡû͹Ф١ǴյöСùǴͧͧǴẺŵ᡹. Ҥǡɵ觻. 10(1):9-14.
ԹԵ Թó, ǹش, شྷ¡, ҨԵ , ç ѭ. 2542. ٭㹡ǢçҹͧǹǴ. Ԩ . 4(2): 4-7.


http://www.phtnet.org/article/view-article.asp?aID=42
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 7:35 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

191. Ӥѭع


. ѡþ ó


þѲҷҧҹԷʵ෤ öʡѴ¡պطդسª ҧ㹾תعӤѭ ṡѧ


1. õ (carbohydrates)
ԹСͺ¤͹ ਹ͡ਹ١ҧ鹨ҡѧʧͧת õ͡ҡѧªҧ

1.1 êҳ (diluent) 㹡ᵡǢͧ (disintegrating agent)

1.2 (gum) ÷ҧѺѹ ªêǹС͹ (suspending agent) êִ (binding agent) ÷ (demulcent)

1.3 (agar) ÷ʡѴҡᴧ ªк êǢͧԵѳ ê㹡Ūѹ

1.4 ӵŷ (sucrose) ҡ 㹻Դҧ о ӵŷ ҹ (sweetening agent) êҳ

1.5 Է (mannitol) 繪١š (sugar alcohol) ҡչӵ ªҹ㹼ԵѳüäҹкѺ

1.6 Է (sorbitol) 繪١š ªҹ㹼Եѳüäҹ

1.7 (cellulose) ǹСͺͧѧת ʷª㹷ҧᾷ շҡ紽 ͹ؾѹͧʷª㹷ҧѪ (methyl cellulose) Ф͡ (carboxymethyl cellulose) ͹ؾѹͧԴоͧͶ١ ªкªԴҡ (bulk laxative) êǹС͹

1.8 ԵԹ (ascorbic acid) 繪١ͫԴ (sugar acid) ª»ͧѹѡäʹ͡ÿѹ


2. ѹ (essential oil)
ѹ ûСͺѺѺ͹ سͧ ¡աҧ˹ volatille oil ǹҧ ͧ ת ͡ պ§ ͡ ҡ öʡѴѹ ͡ҡǹҧ ͧתԸ á蹴͹ (steam distillation) á蹴¡õ (water distillation) á蹴 Ƿ (solvent extraction) Сѹٴǹ仡 µǷ (enfleurage) ѹա੾е շ˹ѡҹ ѡǹСͺͧתع÷ͧ ҹسѵԷҧҹѪԷ ѡ繴ҹѺЦ 㹾תع ԧ Сٴ 繵


3. Ť´ (alkaloid)
繡÷辺㹾ת٧ ҧ㹾ת鹵 ѵ㹨Թ Ť´Թ ʢ ¹㹵ǷԹ ѡѵ ҧѪԷҷ蹪Ѵ ҧ äԹԹ (quinin) ͡鹪ԧ⤹ (cinchona) þسѡä չ (reserpine) ҡ þسŴѹʹ չ (morphine) ҧͧŽþسЧѺҡûǴ 繵


4. 䫴 (glycoside)
ûСͺ辺ҡ㹾תع çҧͧǹ ǹ繹ӵšѺǹ繹ӵ ¡ ⤹ (aglycone) ਹԹ (genin) ǹӵçҧᵡҧѹ» ѧķҧѪԷҢͧûСͺ㹡֧ҧҧᵡҧѹ͡ ǹ繹ӵķ ҧѪԷǹ· Сôٴ ҧ´բ Ҩṡ䫴ٵçҧͧ⤹ (ͧҡǹķҧѪԷ) ѧ

4.1 ͤ䫴 (cardiac glycoside) ķ к к ¹ͧԵ

4.2 ͹ҤԹ⹹䫴 (anthraquinone glycoside) ķк ùժ 㺢 Тᢡ 繵

4.3 ⻹Թ䫴 (saponin glycoside) ҡѺӨͧʺ ѡõ駵ѹ㹡üԵһ´ ١ФӴդ

4.4 ǹ´䫴 (flavonoid glycoside) շ辺 ͡мŢͧת 㹴͡ѭѹ

4.5 ਹԡ䫴 (cyanogenic glycoside) 䫴 Ͷ١͹ ôʹҧҹԡͫԴ (hydrocyanic acid) þɵѵ

4.6 ᷹Թ (tannin) 繡÷辺仾תͺءԴ÷š˭çҧѺ͹ ʽҴ ķ ô͹öС͹õչ ķҴҹЦẤ 㺽 ͧ͢¹ҴԺ





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ʧǹԢԷ ..2544 ҪѭѵԢԷ ..2537

http://www.tistr.or.th/t/publication/page_area_show_bc.asp?i1=88&i2=25
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 7:41 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

192. Ӥѭ辺㹾ת



Alkaloid
Ť´ ÷ķҧѪԷҧ 繡еͧਹš 㹾תҧǧҹ תǧ FABACEAE Ť´ ͺءǹͧת (ԡ), (ŧ) , (⾧), ͡(ԧ⤹) ,ҡ() ҧ㹡Ť´ hyoscine, hyoscyamine ķŴûǴ秢ͧ ҡ 索ͧ⾧

quinine ѡä ҡ͡ѹԧ⤹

caffeine theobromine ռ㹡áекҷǹҧ ҡ㺪紡

resepine ķŴѹԵ ҡҡ



Anthraquinone
͹Ҥ⹹ ķк ¡е鹡úպǢͧ˭ emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein, sennosides ҹҧ Тᢡ ⡰


Cardiac glycoside
ͤ䫴 աùѡä㨷ǼԴѧ öٻع ТҴ§ѺҴ繾 ͧ㹤Ţͧᾷ ҧ oleandrin, thevetins A-B, nerifolin, mansonin, strophanthin, 繵 㹾תǧ APOCYNACEAE չ紹


Coumarin
Թ ªԴ ķҧѪԷҷҧѹ bergapten ķ㹡ûͧѹʧᴴ ҡ khellin ķ¡º ҡ¹ Ǿҳ ¹͡ ¹ҵᵹ



ѡµҡѹѡѺ... Ǥҹѹ.....



Cyanogenic glycoside
⹨չԤ䫴 Ͷ١¨ hydrocyanic acid prussic acid (HCN) 觨繾ɵкʹ ҧ ͧҧ¢Ҵ͡ਹ ͷӧҹҹѹ Ӻҡ ͹ ֹ ֡ ѡ͹ʵ ùµ¶Ҷ١͹ ѧ鹡͹Ѻзҹ еͧҹԸշ͹ linamarin, dhurrin 㹾תǧ Euphorbiaceae ѹӻѧ ҧ תǧ ARACEAE ѡ˹ תǧ CAPPARACEAE ѡ¹


Flavonoid
ǹ´ ءǹͧת յ ͧ ᴧ ǧ Թ ͡ѹ§ ҧԴķ ҧѪԷ ʹç ҹ Ŵѡʺ Ӥѭ hesperidin rutin ķ鼹ѧʹç ᵡ ѡäԴմǧ


Saponin glycoside
⻹Թ䫴 դسѵŴç֧ ¢ͧ⻹Թ㹹 ͧ褧м ҧԴ繾 Ѻзҹ仨Фͧͺء зʹᵡ ù ٵçҧ 2 Ẻ triterpenoid steroid saponin Ǻ ˹ 繵 ҧë⻹Թ䫴Ӥѭ asiaticoside, glycyrrhizic acid 繵


Tannin
᷹Թ 㹾תͺتԴ ҡ ᷹Թ 2 Դ condensed tannins ǹ͡ ˭ hydrolysable tannins ҡǹ ѡ ǹջٴ͡Ҩҡ ͵Ѻѹ(gall) ᷹Թ դسѵԵС͹õչ ˹ѧѵ ᷹ԹķҴҹ ֧ѡäͧ ᷹ԹķѺ駡ԭͧẤ ҧ᷹Թ theogallin, gallic acid, ellagic acid


Volatile oil
ѹ 繹ѹҡá蹾ת͹ ¡ҡתǷ š, ѹ оͺءǹͧת 觡 ١ ҧԴķҹẤ ¡е鹡âѺ Ѻ ҡ÷ͧ״ ͧ ķ¡º Ӥѭ
ҡǹ͡ Һ ͹ ҹ
ҡǹ Сٴ ˹ ٤Ի
ҡǹ͡ ʹ ͺ
ҡǹ ѡ ԡ ԡҧ ҹ




http://rx12.wsnhosting.com/herb/activeplants.html
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 7:52 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

193. Ǿתع (Havesting)


¶֧ûԺѵԡõ;תش ǡѺҼżԵͧתҡŧ١ת͡ú ͡ٻͨѴ˹µ û١ת鹵鹼ҹûԺѵ ѡ Ҩ֧ТͧǼżԵ Ҩ¡繢ش¢ͧüԵѧ鹼ԵеͧԸաǼżԵҧ١ͧǴǷѹ ԩйҨżԵԴµʹسҾͧżԵתçѺͧâͧҴ


ѡࡳǾתع
Ǿתع͹ҹ鹼纨繵ͧͧٻҧ ѡɳѳҹͧתѧͧ¤ҧҹԷТǹѧ㹾ת 駹Ӥѭ (Active constituents) ķ㹡úӺѴѡ㹻ҳ٧ش þسͧתعèТѺԴлҳͧӤѭ㹾תعùѨҧ˹觷ռŵͤسҾͧع ǧҷع Ըաع ռŵͻҳӤѭع ͡ҡǾתعѧͧӹ֧֧ع١١ǹա ҹռŵͻҳͧӤѭ 觨§֧㹡ѡäͧعù


ѡӤѭ㹡Ǿתع մѧ
Ƕ١ ջҳӤѭ٧ش ùӾתª٧ش 㹾תеͧջҳӤѭҡش 駹ѺѨҧ ੾ҧ觪ǧҷǾתع ѧ鹡ع ֧ͧӹ֧֧ ЪǧҷתӤѭ٧ش

Ƕ١Ը ·仡ǹͧתع͡ǹҴѧ

2.1 ҡ Ъ, , ԧ 繵 㹪ǧתشԭԺ д͡ǧ 㹪ǧĴ˹Ƕ֧Ĵ͹ 繪ǧҡաҳӤѭ͹ҧ٧ ..... Ը ԸբشҧѴѧ Ѵҡ͡

2.2 ͡ҡ͡ ͡鹢ͧ ͡´ ͡Ѻ ѡ 㹪ǧҧĴ͹͡ѺĴٽ ջҳӤѭ͡٧ ͡͡͡ ǹ͡ҡ㹪ǧĴٽШ͡ ..... Ը ͡͡͡͡ͺ駵鹤͡͡ҡǹᢹԸ͡͡ѡɳФǧ з͹к§âͧת ͡ǹӵ˭ͧ鹫Ҩת

2.3 纷駵 ҷ 㹪ǧתԭԺҡش ҧԴкتǧҷ 觪ǧҹӤѭҡش ͹Թ (Ҵ) 繵 ....Ը Ը͵Ѵ

2.4 ͡ ͡ӽ ͡ອ·㹪ǧ͡ҹ ҧԴ к㹪ǧ͡ѧ ҹ 繵 ..... Ը Ը͵Ѵ

2.5 ·ѡ纵͹ ջ ҧԴк㹪ǧѧԺ 蹽 繵 .... Ը ԸԸյѴ


תѹ 红д͡ѧҹع÷աè״ ÷ҫ㹹ѹ¹仡Ѻʧᴴ 繵


Ըաع÷١ͧ ·ѺѺ͹ʹ͡ Ը紸 ǹẺҡ 纷駵 ԸբشҧѴѧ ͻСѹǹ ҡش Ѻ͡͡ҡ ռŵ͡ôçԵͧ鹾תع ѧ鹨֧ʹԸա纴ѧǢҧ



ҧʴǾתعúҧԴ ת ǹ Ӥѭ٧ش
ءżԵ Ҿ鹾ת

鹪ѹ ˧ 9-10 ͹ ˧ 駿غ

1-10 բ ͹ 5 ¹Ѻҡʹ

ӽ 90-100 ѹ 120 -150 ѹ ӵ ʹ͡ ժʹ͡

8 ͹ -3 բ蹪Ѵ С͹͡͡

ء Թ Ǻ 2-3 1 ʴ ҳ͹ .-..

˧ 1-3 2 բ 鹿غ 纪ǧᵡ˹

ҷ 110-120 ѹ ͡͡Դ

Тᢡ ѡ 50-90 ѹ 80-120 ѹ ͡͡ 纽ѡ 20-23 ѹ ҹ ѡ

8 ͹ ѧء ¹ͧ

ᢡ 8-10 ء 袹Ҵ

ջ 1-5 բ Ѵء ͧ




http://www.angelfire.com/ri2/rangsan/keep_hook.html
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 1:30 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

194. áӨѴѵپתӤѭ㹡ɵâͧ


Ҥͷ (Paraquat)
ҡӨѴѪתաҡش㹻[4] ӧҹش駡ԺⵢͧѪת зͧ͢Ź駵ŧ


ʵ (Glyphosate)
ҡӨѴѪתԸթմдٴҧ, Ըթմӵ ʹʹ



2,4- (2,4-D)
ת (͡Թ) ѧ ¶㹤鹵ӨСе鹡ԭԺ 㹤٧áӨѴѪת㺡ҧ ķͧ͡Թ٧ҡ Ѫת㺡ҧ繾ת§ǵ͡õͺʹͧ 2,4- ҡҾת᤺繾ת§



ǵҤ (Butachlor)
ҡӨѴѪתͧѹѪת͹ѪתЧ͡ ͻͧѹѪת ˭Ңǹ ˭ҹժ ˭Ҵ͡ ҡ ˹ǴҴء ´



þҹ (Propanil)
ҡӨѴѪתӨѴѪתǡ᤺ ˭Ңǹ ˭ҹժ ˭Ҵ͡



⹫Ҿ;--緸 (Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl)
ҡӨѴѪתӨѴѪת˭ ˭Ҵ͡ ˭Ңǹ ˭ҹժ ˭ᴧ
ྐྵԹ (Pendimethalin) ҡӨѴѪתӨѴѪת ˭Ңǹ ˭Ҵ͡ ˭ᴧ ҡ ˹ǴҴء ´ ѡʹ



⫫ſ͹-ͷ (Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl)
ҡӨѴѪתӨѴѪת ҡ ˹ǴҴء ´ ѡʹ ѡ




ҧԧ
1.^ áӨѴ͡äǺ ҧ §حԴ, ҹءѺǪ 3[1]
2.^ áӨѴѪת: ѡС䡡÷, Ⱦ þ, ӹѡ Էɵʵ, .. 2545 ISBN 975-537-200-5
3.^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 http://www.brrd.in.th/rkb2/weed/index.php-file=content.php&id=41.htm
4.^ http://www.chemtrack.org/News-Detail.asp?TID=1&ID=52



http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B3%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%B7%E0%B8%8A
Ѻ仢ҧ
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kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 2:58 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

195. ԹԨäתԴҡժԵ


˵آͧäתԴҡժԵ (Inanimate agent) ͨҡҾǴͧתªԴ âҴҵ Ѻɨҡ ҡԹ ҡ÷ת١ͧҡʧᴴ ҡüԴͨҡ˵ҹҧ駾תʴҡä¡ѹ ҡâҴҵ ҧԴʴҡëմͧ¡ѺäԴҡ ⤾ ֧դ繵ͧӡõǨԹԨҧ´ äתԴҡ˵ ҡժԵͧ辺˵ ¡ͷ辺͹ѧͷʴҡüԴ ˵بҡժԵö·ʹѧ

âҴҵ㹾ת (Mineral deficiency) Ѻ˵ӤѭشͧäתԴҡժԵ תʴѡɳҡâҴҵ (Hunger signs) ҾԹ١ҴҵتԴ ҾתöͧҡҾ繡ô繴ҧ

ҵطתͧҡҵѡ㹡ôçԵ (Major element) ਹ ʿ ⻵ жѹ Դ辺ҡҵ ͹ ਹ ͡ਹ

ǹҵطתͧùҵͧ դ㹡 ԭԺⵢͧת (Minor elements) ҹ ͹ ѧ ͧᴧ ԺԹ Фչ


ǹСͺͧ;תҵҡµҧѹͧâͧԴת

- ҵਹ Ѻ͡ਹ
- ӫ觪㹡§ҵ÷ת觵֧çվ
- ͡ਹФ͹͡䫴 㹡ҧõ 㹢ǹѧʧ
- ਹٻͧ õ ж١¹繡ô㹾ת 觷˹ҷҧõչ
- ʿ㹾תǹӤѭ äǺСѺ駡ӵ㹾ת й鹾תҴʿѡʴҡǧ
- ⻵㹡§ҵ㹾ת תҹҹä
- жѹǹӤѭ㹡ô ͢Ҵҵعתʴҡͧ¡ѺҴਹ
- ١ת ǹСͺӤѭͧÿŴ ҾתҴҵتԴʴҡͧմ
- ҵ١ٴתǹСͺͧѧת ִҴ¡ѹٻͧ Calcium pectate
- մҵ˹觷ǹӤѭ㹡ҧÿŴ
- ҹǹӤѭ catalyst 㹢ǹ çվͧת
- ͹繸ҵطդӤѭ㹡觵Ǣͧԭ
- ѧ ͧᴧ ԺԹ ǹӤѭ㹢ǹԫ㹾ת




ػѡɳҡâͧתҴҵغҧԴ
Ҵҵਹ : תԭԺ⵪ իմͧǷ駵ҡҧմͧ͹

Ҵҵؿʿ : תԭԺ⵪ ǧdzҧӵʹ

Ҵҵ : 㺷 ʴҡëմͧᴧdzͺл㺡͹µŧ价⤹ իմͧٻ V ǡѺͺǹ͢

Ҵҵ⻵ : 鹾תʹ ҧմͧ ͺǹ鹻Тͺչӵ բҴŧ

Ҵҵ : ͹ԴͪѡԭԺ ʴҡúԴǹ ͺ㺩աҴ ʹ駵 ӵҡ ᵡ ªԴ

Ҵҵ͹ : ҹ͹ᵡѡ 㺺Դ ҡӵм ʴҡᵡ ӵᵡ١ǧպ㹼ѡªԴ

Ҵҵءжѹ : ͹իմͧǷ

Ҵҵ : ͹իմͧѧ

Ҵҵѧ : 㺴ҧͧҧ բҴԴ繡Шء



ҾǴҧͧѺâҴҵ ҾҧԡͧԹդ˹ǨѴ Ѻ駡Ш¢ͧҡ תٴҵ س㹴Թ٧Թѵµਹҵ㹴Թ ٹ㹴ԹҡԹ仨ѺҵغҧԴ ѧ ͹ ҹʷҡתö

ԹԨ¡âҴҵ㹾תҨ¡ҡ;ת (Tissue analysis) ҡ㺷ҧººѺҵðҹ ҡת ԹѴдѺ繡ô繴ҧ㹴Թ Ъ㹡ͧѹâҴҵ㹾ת

֡ѡɳҡâҴҵ㹾תͧԺѵԡ͹Шö¡û١ת㹹 (Nutrient solution) ҵ÷תͧäúǹ ººѺת§㹹ҷҴҵ÷ͧ֡ ҷ١ת·令 Hoaglands solution ǹСͺѧ

KNO3 0.006 mole/Ե
Ca(NO3)2 4H2O 0.004 mole/Ե
MgSO4 7H2O 0.002 mole/Ե
NH4H2PO4 0.001 mole/Ե
FeCl3 (5%) 1 .
Microelement 1 .


ǹСͺͧ microelement 1 Ե
H3BO3 2.86
MnCl2 4H2O 1.81
ZnSO4 7H2O 0.22
CuSO4 5H2O 0.02
H2MoO4H2O 0.02


һ١תҴҵ (Incomplete nutrient solution) ѡࡳ ͵ͧתҴҵ㴸ҵ˹㹹 Hoagland ͧ¹ͧ͢÷ոҵع (Na) ᷹ҵ÷ᤷ͹ (Cation) ͧҴ ¹ KNO3 NaNO3 㹡óշ͹͹ (Anion) ô (Cl) ᷹ ͧҴਹ (÷) ͧ¹ KNO3 KCl

ػҴҵتԴ˹㹹§ת֡ѡɳҡâҴҵٵù§תմѧ

ҵͧҴҵਹ KCl , CaCl2 NaH2PO4 ᷹ KNO3 , Ca(NO3)2 4H2O NH4H2PO4 ӴѺ

ҵͧҴҵؿʿ NH4Cl ᷹ NH4H2PO4
ҵͧҴҵ NaNO3 ᷹ KNO3
ҵͧҴҵ NaNO3 ᷹ Ca(NO3)2 4H2O
ҵͧҴҵ Na2SO4 ᷹ MgSO4 7H2O
ҵͧҴҵءжѹ MgCl2 ᷹ MgSO4 7H2O
ҵͧҴҵ ͧ FeCl3 ŧٵù


úاŵ鹾ת§㹹Ҥաҡ (aeration) ءѹ ¹ҷءҷԵ ¹Ҿ繡ôҧ ҡԹ ·дѺ繡ô繴ҧҧ 5.0-6.0


ҡâҴҵتԴתͧҡ ਹ ʿ 繸ҵػ (Fertilizer element) ʴҡ Ҵҵػҡѹ ͹ҡâҴҵبҡ㺾תҡҵºº繡ê¡ԹԨ١ͧ觢 ǹ ͺѡɳҡâҴҵط繸ҵͧԸӷҡͧҡ ͧͺ㹻ҳҵҹѡ͹㹸ҵ ͧ Ҫйӡ蹪Դ



http://guru.sanook.com/pedia/topic/%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%88%E0%B8%89%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%A2%E0%B9%82%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%B7%E0%B8%8A/#þ٨ä
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 09/08/2011 3:11 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

196. äתԷ (Plant pathology)

äתԷ (Plant pathology) Ҩҡҡա 2 pathos(suffering) ¶֧ ÷ءҹ 纻ͤlogos (speech) ¶֧ áǶ֧ ѧäתԷҨ֧¶֧ áǶ֧¢ͧת ǹäת(plant disease) ¶֧תҡѺ

ת ¶֧ תԷҵҧ˹ҷ軡շشöͧ¾ѹ ôٴҵ ѧʧ 繵

äת 㹾ҹء ͸Ժ 2 ¤
1. äתʴѡɳҡ(symptoms) ͡ҡâͧתѺ(malady) üԴ仨ҡԢͧת(disorder)

2. ¹ŧԴ仨ҡת ¹ŧҧçҧͧת ʴҡ͡繷ҧҹسҾ/ سҷҧɰԨŧ


Դ繢ͧѡäתҧ ¢ͧäת äת繡¹ŧǹѧҹкôçԵͧ ת仨ҡ Դ תŤҷҧɰԨŧ


Ǣ
˵آͧԴä(Causes of plant diseases)
ǹСͺͧä (Disease components)
èṡäת
ҧäԴѺת


˵آͧԴä(Causes of plant diseases) 2 ˵ؤ
1. ˵طԴҨҡժԵ(Biotic pathogen)
- ǡ˵طԴä Ấ ´ 繵
- ǡӤѺת ѵ§١¹ҧ ŧ ͹ 繵
- ǡ繵ǹä ҽҡ ·ͧ 繵

2.˵طԴҨҡժԵ(Abiotic pathogen)
- Ǵҧ س ʧᴴ Թ 繵
- 繾 žɨҡç俿ҶҹԹ žɨҡ˭
- Ѩ·ҧ 繡ô-ҧͧԹ,


äתҨ繷äԴ(Infectious disease) ¶֧ äԴҡͷժԵ͡ä תջԡҵͺõԴ öкҴѧ ҡҾǴääԴ (Non infectious disease) ¶֧ äԴҡ˵ ͡˹ͨҡäԴäöкҴҡ鹷ä ѧת



ǹСͺͧä (Disease components)
ǹСͺͧä繻ѨӤѭͧԴä ҡҴǹǹ˹ǨСԴäóҨԴä

ǹСͺͧä繷ѡѹ㹪 äת(Disease triangle)

1. ת(Host) ͧվת·ä
2. ˵(Pathogen) ͧ˵طعç
3. ҾǴ(Environment) ͧҾǴ͡Դä
4. (Time) ӤѭաѨ˹ ҷתäʡѹ ҷ

㹢зس Դä ҷ ͡Ш¢ͧʻ çͧ͡ʻ õԴ 繵



èṡäת
1. èṡҡâͧתä ṡ¡ҡâͧתѡ繪ͷ äҡ ä㺨ش äʹ ä 繵 觴ѧ 繡ëѺ͹ѹªäǡѹҨԴҡԹªԴ 觵ҧդسѵᵡҧѹͧ ûԺѵ蹡äǺä ͧó

2. èṡǹͧתä ṡ͡繡¡ǹͧתä ä äӵ ä äҡ ẺСѺҹ ҧҹԷʵ ǹʴҺ֧çҧ ԷҢͧתä˵

3. èṡẺͧתä 繡ҧҧẺͧתѡ ᷺ջª·ҧԷʵ äͧת äͧѡ ä ͧ äͧ ä͡дѺ äͧʹ˭ 繵

4. èṡ¤СкҴͧä ÷Ӥ¢ͧתЪԴѹդᵡҧѹ äҧԴз¾תҧǴ Ӥת äӤҡش͡ҡзתŴżԵ ŧѧͧкҴҡ鹷äѧ ͧա ¡äѡɳй֧դӤѭҧ㹡㹪ҵ ҧҵ㹡ûͧѹ

5. èṡẺͧ˵آͧתä äԴҡժԵäԴҡժԵ



ҧäԴѺת
1. äԴҡ äʹ,äҴ, ä ergot ͧùТ, äѹ, äҹӤҧͧ, ä㺨ش չӵŢ
2. äԴҡ ä㺴ҧ
3. äԴҡẤ äᤧͧתС
4. äԴҡ͹ äҡ





http://guru.sanook.com/pedia/topic/äתԷ_(Plant_pathology)/
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 10/08/2011 9:40 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

197. շŧǧ͡


ɵҧͧԿ

Կ (Chlorpyrifos) 繪ѭͧáӨѴŧѵپת ժͷҧäҹѺª Ѵ㹡⹿࿵ (Organophosphate Insecticides) áԹտʿͧСͺӤѭ 繾ɨᵡҧѹЪԴ Ҩա䡡͡ķ͹ѹ · 繾ҡ͹¢ͧáӨѴŧ þ ѧࡵҡ LD50 (LD50 ¶֧ Ҥ鹢ͧշѵ췴ͧ仨ӹǹ 50 繵ͧѵ췴ͧѺչ) Ҥ觵ʴդ繾٧

ѺԿʨѴдѺ 2 йӢͧԪҡɵäԿ㹡áӨѴ˹͹ͽ ¹Թ ͹ ¨ѡ ǧǧѹ ͢͡ ǧǧ ǧǧ⾴ ʹ ʹ ˹͹ӵ ˹͹нѡ ˹͹˹ ˹͹ҹ⾹յ ŧ˹ дǧǧ㹡

תй ͧ ʧ ѹ ͡Ӿѹ ѹ о С 觨դй㹡ͧתѡҧ ѨغѹäԿʷԪҡɵѺ鹷¹շ 3 ٵ 1 ٵ 5 繵繹 2 ٵ 40 繵 ӴѺ

ͧҡäԿѵѹ·վ ֧ͧԺѵԵ١ͧѡࡳͧûͧѹѹ¨ҡշҧɵ Ҩ繡ا ˹ҡҡ 觡Ѵ մ˹Ŵ ѧҵ ١ лҡ ҧҧҴءѧ ѵ㹺dzҧ 24 繵

͡ҡ äԿѧ繾ɵͻ ͧѴѧêҧŧ觹 繾ɵͼ ֧зתմ͡ѧҹ դ繾ɵ͵е¹ ֧ͧҧѴѧ蹡ѹ Ѻлʹ ѧ ͧҡ͹ǼżԵѧäش 7-14 ѹ ҧ


к硵Թ (Abamectin) ͷѡѹ㹪͡ä.., Թ, õԹ ͺҹáӨѴŧ (Insecticide) ԴҡкǹѡẤ·㹴Թ Streptimyces avermitilis ÷ʡѴ avermectin B1a avermectin B1b դسѵԷҧҾФ繾ɤ¤֧ѹ Ƿöʴ֧ԷҾ㹡áӨѴŧ avermectin B1a ͵ͧҡ 80 % ͧ͡ķ йԹ դسҾǹ˭Եٻ͡ķ 1.8 % W/V EC 鹵ͧavermectin B1a ҡ 1.44 % ͧ

Եѳк硵Թǹ˭դ繾ɵӵѵ§١¹ ҡ÷ͧѵ췴ͧþɷԴФͧ ͵м˹ѧ硹ШԴҡâ¢ͧҹ ¹ ˴ ʵ

ŧк硵Թ͡ķкҷ ֧鹻ҷС ¡͡ķШ͵˹ṻ (synap) ͧѺ駡ùʹ§ͧ ŧ㹷ش

ѵ§١¹ ҡþ㹻ҳҡ ʹʹ§ͧ˵آͧҡ CNS depressing ÷ӧҹͧҹѹ 蹢ͧҧ ª â¢ͧҹзªԵͧҡк

к硵Թҹ˹ѧµç ëѺͧк硵Թҡ˹ѧʹ¡ 1% ֧˹ѧʴҡѡɳТͧ Եѳٻ 1.8% W/V EC LD50 ҧҡ˹ٹ 300 ./. Ф LD50 ҧ˹ѧ㹡еդ¡ 2,000 ./.

سѵաСâͧк硵Թ¹ ִСѺ͹ҤͧԹ й鹨֧ա͹¨ҡԹ任͹㹹 ͡ҡѧµҾǴ §ҹͼǴԹзʧᴴ к硵Թµ 8-12 1 ѹ Ѻ㹾תк硵ԹŴҳŧͤ˹觷ء 4-6 ֧Ѻ÷ʹ٧ѺǴ

㹴ҹԷҾûͧѹӨѴŧѵپת ҧͧկѵԷ Ԫҡɵйк硵Թ㹡ûͧѹӨѴ˹͹͹, 俾ԡ, ᴧǧ, ͧش, ˹͹¼ѡ, ˹͹ŧѹ͹㺡, âǾԡ, 俽 ˹͹д͡

ҡɵá÷ҹʧŧѵپתҹ öк硵Թ㹡ûͧѹӨѴ öͺѷ () ӡѴ չѡԪҡäӻ֡ҡѺҹ

⺫Ό þɵҧͧ˹͡˹һҳ٧شͧþɵҧԹ÷ͧ㹾鹷ɵá 駷 3 ͡ᾧʹѧѴû͹ѹҤ 2550 ֧͹ 2551 駷 4 Ҿѹ ͧѧѴû ͹Զع¹֧͹ԧҤ 2551 ҧἹ÷ͧ÷ͧẺ Codex

ǷҧùȷͧСûСͺ 2 ÷ͧ
÷ͧ 1 մ¤⺫ΌѵҤ鹵й㹩ҡ 50 Եõ͹ 20 Ե (w ʫ 20% / VEC)
÷ͧ 2 մ蹴¹ŧǺ¾þɨӹǹ 4 ҧѹ 7 ѹС÷ͧ 4 7 ԸСԸ ǵҧѧþɤش· 0 ѹ (2 ѧéմ) 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 14 ѹӴѺšþɵҧ駷 3 ⺫Όդ 1.28, 0.81 0.04 ԡ͡š 0, 1 3 ѹӴѺ. о⺿ҹդ 1.12, 0.99, 0.81, 0.42 0.05 ԡ š 0, 1, 3, 5 7 ѹӴѺз 4 ⺫ΌդҡѺ 0.89, 0.41 0.03 ԡ͡š 0, 1 3 ѹӴѺ ⺿ҹդ 0.91, 0.71, 0.63, 0.34 0.02 ԡ͡š 0, 1, 3, 5 7 ѹӴѺ ǹŧǺ辺þɵҧһҳ٧شͧþ ҧͧ⺫ΌФ⺿ҹ˹ Codex ֧ººѺҤ⺿ҹҡѺ 0.1 ԡ͡š (/ WHO, 2000 FAO) ʴѧҡմ 蹤⺫Ό 7 ѹ֧ö˹Һ


þ⤹ Ѱŭ͡СǡѺ MRL ¡˹ Positive List (¡÷͹حҵ) ռźѧѺѹ 29 Ҥ 2549 աá˹ MRL ͧ§ӹǹ˹ ҡշҧɵ÷˹¡ôѧ С˹ 0.01 ppm ء¡ ö¡ Positive List MRL ͧȭ



⹷տù ( dinotefuran) 1% GR
䡡÷ӧҹ
ʵ ռŵ͡÷ӧҹͧкҷǹҧͧŧѵپת ¨Ѻ駡觼ҹ觢ͧҷͧŧ ŧҵ Թ е㹷ش
سѵлª


* áӨѴŧԴٴҷҧкҡѺͧͺ⤹ѧ١ҡѷ Ե Ԥ ȭ

* áӨѴŧѡɳ紷շѺ (Magenta) ͺ⹷տù 㹡͹⤵Թ´ (Neonicotinoid) 辺ٺ оѲҨ֧鹷 3 ֧ ʵ դ繾ɵҡ ѵ§١¹ Ǵ

* ͡ķٴҷҧкҡöͧѹӨѴŧź͹躹鹾ת Թ

* ջԷҾ͡ķǺ СӨѴŧǹҹ 30-45 ѹ ͧѹӨѴŧԹ ¨ѡ蹽, ͹, , ŧ,, ˹͹ŧѹ͹, ˹͹ŧѹӵ, ǧᵧ, ŧԹ , ǡ, ǧԹ, ¹Թ 繵

* ӨѴŧҡٴ繾Тͧäҧ ä˴ٺ, äͧ㹡º, ä, ᵧ, ᤹ٻ, С

* Ѻתѡ ੾оתѡ͡ ͡дѺ

ҵðҹҳþɷҧɵõҧ (pesticide residue) ٧شǧ





ѵѹ·ҧɵ (pesticides)
ҳþɵҧ٧ش
(Maximum Residue Limits: MRLs)
(ԡ͡š)

ູҫ / (carbendazim/benomyl)...... 5
᤾᷹ (captan)......................................... 5
Թ (cypermethrin)............................ 0.5
ŷԹ (deltamethrin).............................. 0.5
ͤ (dithiocarbamates).................. ** 2
ÿ⹿ (profenofos)................................. 0.2
࿹õ (fenvalerate)................................ 1
ŷԹ (lambda-cyhalothrin)............. 0.1
෿͹ (ethephon)........................................ 2
(carbaryl)......................................... 1

**/ ѵѹ·ҧɵáͤ ๺ (zineb), (thiram), þ๺ (propineb) , ๺ (maneb) ૺ (mancozeb)



http://taladkaset.net/CropsBoard/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19&Itemid=27
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ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 7:22 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

198. "͹¾ѹ¡ӨѴŧ" ҧ͡ǹѡԹ

ѨغѹԵԹɵ੾оתѡ мդ蹵Ǥ͹ҧ٧ͧ ŴդǺͧѹ СӨѴŧѵپת ͧҡѹآҾҡ觢 çҨѺšзҡþɵҧ͹ ʡѡҾ ֧ʡѴҡתҷ᷹ Ѻʹ㨨ҡɵáҡ зԹɵûʹ¨ҡõҧ 觨Ъ ŤԹͧѺҴԹɵԹµ٧

ӹѡԨ¾ѲҡѡҾת Ԫҡɵ ԹԨоѲê ѳӨѴѵپתҧͧ ѳջԷҾ ͹ҷ᷹Ŵ ûͧѹӨѴѵپתŧдѺʹµͼм 觧ҹԨ "͹ ¾ѹ¡ӨѴŧ" 繼ŧҹԨա˹觷¼ж·ʹɵá ö仼Եͧ㹾鹷л١ »Ѵ鹷عüԵ ѧ ҧ㹡Ŵշѹ żԵɵ÷դسҾʹµͼ Ǵ

.تö 駨ԵԴ ҹ͹ ӹѡԨ¾ѲҡѡҾת Ԫҡɵ 鹾͹¡ӨѴŧԴҵ 2539 ҡ鹷ŧ١ ࢵ.ҭ 觨Ѵ¾ѹ췹͹ǡѺ͹·¡ҡѰ Ѱԡ öҹس٧ 35 ͧ 㹢ѡ 駤ѡҾ㹡ҷŧ٧֧ 38 ͧ

ҡùҷͺӨѴŧªԴдѺͧԺѵԡ öŧ ѵپתӤѭԹ 48 ˹͹з ˹͡зѡ ˹͹ ͽ ˹͹д͡ ǧѴⴴ ˹͹ǧԹҡʵ ͹ ˹͹㹶ا աѧöһǡŧҺա

͹¾ѹöҷЦŧе˹͹ е ¢ͧŧ ҹҧҡٷ Ǩ͹ѧͧҧӵŧչ ʹ ͹¨лŴẤ«ӵ͡ѹҧþ ռŷŧԴҡʹ繾е 24-48 ҡ͹ ¨ԭԺТ¾ѹ㹵ŧ ҳ 2-3 بŧҡ ͹µ͹з 3 觷ҹҾǴ͹͡¹͡ҡŧ ҷŧ

͹¾ѹ¹ö§ ҳҤҶ١ ªԴ §êԴ秡ǷСͺõչҡ 紼Ѻѹ 令ءѺ ͡ҡо駵Ѵ繪 ͢ о ͪ鹿ͧ èŧҪз͹ ҡ鹹ͺ触 駷 ͹ŧ ҧ§سͧҳ 7-10 ѹ ͹¨Т¾ѹҳҡ 500 20,000 öҳ֧ 12-17 ҹǵͶا

ɵáö§͹ͧ öŴ鹷عüԵ͹ҧҡ ҡɵáë͹㹷ͧҴ 10 ҹ ҤҨе 80 ҷ ҼԵͧ 鹷ع§ 5 ҷ ҹ Ŵ㹡ëͼԵѳäӡ 20

йɵáêǹѡԹ㹾鹷.Ҫ ҽ֡ͺ§͹ ҧǹ仼Եͧ öӨѴŧѵŧѡ ŷ˹͹зѡ дǧѴѡ ¡éմ͹´ͧêԴоѧ 㹪ǧͪǧ 繷ʧᴴѴ оմ١ŧҡش ͹¨ӹǹ 500- 800 ҹǵ;鹷 1

͹¡ӨѴŧ¾ѹ¹ öӨѴŧѵپתªԴ سѵ ö͹ ɵáѧöԵͧµ鹷ع Ŵͷ ᷹շѹ 繷ҧ͡Ѻ١תѡԹмѡʹ þɷͺ͡ä





: http://www.phtnet.org/news/viewNews.asp?id=1375

http://www.news.cedis.or.th/detail.php?id=519&lang=en&group_id=1
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:20 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

199. ١˭ ӸáԨ

Ҥҡ͹ 25

˭ᾧ
繾ѹԭԺ öҷ˭ Ҵդͧҧͧ
ѹҨҡҧ ͺҾҡȷسԵ 19-35 ͧ ԭԺ㹾鹷սҡ 1,000 ͻ
繾ѹ㺴 ᵡҡ˹͵͵͹駵ç ҡӵ鹨зʹ͹仵ǴԹ

˭ᾧҹ õչҳ 6-10 繵 ҡ˭Ҿ鹺ҹҡ

ѡɳТͧӵ բ 40-64 ૹ

ٻҧ 12-19 ૹ ҧҳ 4 Һ 2-6 ૹ

¾ѹ·͹ѹ

١駷д͹ Ǻҹҹ˹ͧ ١ѹ㹷 Ҿ鹷ͧҹ 95 繵 繹Ң

Ƿء 40 ѹ çҹѡ



觨٧
Ѩغѹ˭㹸ҵŴŧ ҳѵѺ ѧ ѵҴŹ

١˭ҹѹлѴӴ ˹

ɵáü§ѵ Ҩ ҧ դͧ˭ҡѹҡ

Ң˭駡š 2.50 ҷ 1 ͹ չ˹ѡҳ 20 š Թ 25 ҷɵá÷ҫ˭ ҧ ɮҹ ҡҨҧö÷ء ¤աҳ 2-3 ҷ ͡͹
١

ɮҹ к Ҫ ž û лШǺբѹ ˭͹§⤹

ҭ ҹ ظ Сا෾ ˭§ ˭͹§Ҿ鹺ҹ

ԷԴ ѧѴҭ ˭͹§ҧ

١ǹ˭ТѺöҫͶ֧觼Ե·


¶١͹ѹ ١˭§ѵѹͧ ǹ˭ǡҺ͡ շԹ ੾Ҥǹǹѹ ҧ Դͺ鹷 й˭ҤسҾ㹸ҵŧ͹ҧ 繵ͧͨҡ§ѵ

˭ᾧҹ õչҳ 6-10 繵 ҡ˭Ҿ鹺ҹҡ ɵá÷˭Ҩҡ仡Դѧ ѵͺԹ ԭԺǴ”

ŧͧѡ ش Ѵ͹ öá ͺ 3 ҹҷ ⡴ѧѺ˭ ͡âա 2-3 ҹҷ Թǹ˹觡Ҩҡ鹢ͧҪԡ ͧúǹӺ (ͺ.) 駡ѵ ʹѺʹعԹ͔ ˭ؾԹҶ֧㹡÷ӧҹ


Դ : سؾԹ иҹ١˭Һҹ˹ͧ м˭ҹ 9 Ӻźҹ ء ѧѴؾó . (09) 800-8850 Фسç ˹ʶҹվѲѵ ӻ֡ҧԴ



: library.dip.go.th/multim5/edoc/14412.doc
http://damnoen.in.th/page/2/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:22 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

200. ١ǡ ҧ ҡѧ


㹡÷ǹеͧ繻ա͹纼żԵ觢 ੾ж׹˭ ҷ лҧ ǧ ҧ 2-3 ն֧żԵ һ١ С ҷ鹡

سҺ ҹŢ 10 9 .෾ .ͧ .ᾧྪ ɵáա˹觷աԹԴª٧ش¡û١鹵ǹշͧ ջʺó㹡û١ҹҹ 5 㹾鹷ҳ 4 ҧѺͺҧ

سҺл١ǡ ͧҡӵǺǹ 蹩عͻҳ ֧л١еͧ෤Ԥ㹡û١ еͧѡ鹵ŧԹѡɳ§ 45 ͧ ѡͺǧdz ͺ١ 4-6 㹢з㹡û١ͧǹ˭ѡлѡ鹵鹵ŧç dzҧ١ ҵԢͧ鹵ᵡͨҡçҧǢ¡͡Ңͺ

͵鹵͡任Сͺ 鹵dzҧ (㹡óշ١ҧ) ͹ 纵ҡ㺵кҴᢹҴͤ ͡ҡѧ鹵§ͺӨҡô֧鹵ա

㹡ŧ١ɵáèеͧ䶾ǹԹº ѧҡ¢شǧҴ鹼ٹҧ 30 ૹ ¤͡仾ѺþǹԹ

л١ 1 x 1 һ١Դҹ鹵Ǻ 鹨м٧ 㹾鹷 1 л١ҳ 1,600 (һ١繾תӹǹ͹¡ҹ) سҺѧ͡

֧鹾ѹ͹١è͡ҡͷص 8 ͹ ͺش¡駡ǹ¡͡ҡѹ մѴǹҡ㺷 任١ŧաԸ˹觤Ѵ鹾ѹ繡 ͷей֡ҳ 5 ૹ ҹҳ 5-7 ѹ ҡЧ͡͡ҡͧ任١ ҡѡ鹾ѹ§ 45 ͧ ѡ֡ҳ 5 ૹ ѡ 4 鹵 1

ɵáèТش鹵 8 ͹-1 դ ҡԹդӵ鹨 âش¤èТش駡 鹵 1 ˹ѡҳ 6-10 šѧҡҵѴҡ͡ 鹵դǻҳ 30 ૹ Ѵ繡 ͺاʵԡ˹ѡ 10 šͶا ҤҢµ׹ 5 ҷ͡š㹪ǧĴٽ 㹪ǧĴ͹Ҥ-¹ ЪǧȡҤҨᾧ 8-10 ҷ͡š.



: www.ubmthai.com
http://damnoen.in.th/page/2/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:24 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

201. ١ 1 Թ֧ 4


դҡ褹ѹ ҹþѺ ! ! ! ͧҧûСͺҪվҧɵùҡ· Ҩʹѹ

աת˹觷¤ͧ Դʹ㨷л١͡ä 駷 תǢͧ” اҡ觢 Ҩ繵 ᡧ ӵ 觻ѨغѹաùҵǹͧԵѳҧ ԧصˡ繨ӹǹҡ 鼧 աҡ ɵá÷繤سҢͧѹѹһ١繡ä дѺҾ

ҧ Է кѴͧ 30 ҹŢ 3 10 ҹ⹹ѹ Ӻ⹹ѹ ͪ ѧѴ͹ ١Ҫվ㹾鹷ҳ 1 Т¼żԵ㹪ǧ ö٧ҳ 40,000 ҷ ·

سԷ ǡѺçѹ㹡û١ Ҫվѡͷзӹ ҡʹҡл١¤١Ŵ ֧һ١㹻 2547 ӹǹ 50 㹾鹷ҳ 1 л١ 6X8 ѧҡ١ ֧ѴԹ㨻١ͧҧҧҧǢͧ ŴáӨѴѪתǹաҧ˹觴”

سԷ ͡ û١ҡ ҡ䶾ǹ㹪ͧҧҧǢͧ ҡ鹹ӵŧ١ ӹǹ 3 л١ 50X50 ૹ 2 ͹ ӨѴѪת Сٵ 15-15-15 Ѻ (46-0-0) ҧ ѹ ҹǷŧ ҳ 20 š ;鹷 1 ҡ١㹪ǧĴٽͧ ҡҹԭԺᵡ˭ 㺨Ф鹷֧Ѫת ͧ¤㹡áӨѴѪתա 5 ͹ ա˹ öػҳ 6 ͹

¡âشҷ駡 ҵѴǹ⤹еѴ㺷 ǢͧѺ觵Ҵҳ 1 ص ҡ鹺è㹶اʵԡ ا 10 š 觢Ѻҵ

سԷ ͡ й纼żԵءѹ ѹлҳ 200 š ѺҷҴͪ ѹ 4-6 ѺҤҢ¹㹪ǧ͹չҤ š 5 ҷ ͹¹ҤҴբ鹡š 8 ҷ ֧ԴҪǧĴ繪ǧҴͧ٧ ѧ 㹻չ֧·Т¾鹷١ҡ ͻҳ 5 ШռżԵ͡㹪ǧ͹չҤ-Ҥ 繪ǧҤҴ §¡š 5 ҷ ҴҨзԹѡʹҷҧ͹ ҧá û١żԵ͡㹪ǧĴ駹 繾鹷ҧ ͹ 2-3 ֧Ŵ

ǧ١ ͹ҹ͡ ҷ١ͧ лǨդ١ѹ§ ҵ͹㨷öԹҴ

繤ӡǢͧҢͧǹͪ

ҹþѺ ! ! ! תعǹ աת˹觷öҧҹԹҢͧҧ ͷŵͺ᷹աҡ÷ӹ ͷҵ û١ ôѡҡ 鹷ع ö١ Ҿ鹷 ١ŧ 㹪ͧҧͧŷѧ ١ѹͻ١ѹҡ ֧Ѻաͧҧ˹Ѻɵá ѧͧҪͧҧûСͺҪվҧɵ㹢й



http://www.leksound.net/forum/index.php?topic=14570.0
http://damnoen.in.th/page/2/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:27 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

202. ١Ѻоǹ


١Ѻоǹ ǹҧ㹡û١оǻҳ 7 »١ҧҹҧҳ 3.5 ҧҢͧǹ׹ѹ͡͡͡Յ

й繾ת ͺᴴ ҡеʴᴴͧŧҡ ԭԺСŨҷÅ

Ըѭҡͷҧǹӡ«ת١ һ١ͷкѧᴴѺ 繾תͺ ˹駨ѹͧ 1-2 ҡ͹

͡͡駻 Ңͧǹ͡੾д͡ش˭ ͧ͹Ȩԡ¹иѹҤ ҹ鹫觨͹Զع¹ͧնѴ ͡鹨кҹѧҡ͡ҳ˹͹ѧ ҧҢͧǹзӡê¼ ¨͡Ǽͧз١ҡõШöеԴŵͷҡ

ԹǧԭԺ⵴ҡ ˹ҡ ҧҢͧǹ§鹵͡ҹҡ˹ҡ觼Դ͡

úا
ҧǹ¤͡ҳ 2 лٵ 15-15-15 ҳ͹ͤ駫觨㹪 纼żԵ ͡ҡٵ 13-13-21 㹨ӹǹҡѡ

ô
ҧеԴǹ ҧҢͧǹӤѭҧҡ ͧҡйŷ ʹ˹٤úǹ Ңͧǹͧ͡ҡѴѺ§٧鹨ҡ鹴Թ ͻͧѹ١˹١Ѵлͧѹ鹨ҡԹ价ªʹ͡




: ǹͧ .ź 038-292-432, 081-826-4336 (Ԫҵ Ҵ, оǹ ͡÷ǹоǹҧҪվ駷 5)
http://damnoen.in.th/2010/12/12/%e0%b8%9b%e0%b8%a5%e0%b8%b9%e0%b8%81%e0%b8%aa%e0%b8%a5%e0%b8%b0%e0%b9%81%e0%b8%8b%e0%b8%a1%e0%b8%81%e0%b8%b1%e0%b8%9a%e0%b8%a1%e0%b8%b0%e0%b8%9e%e0%b8%a3%e0%b9%89%e0%b8%b2%e0%b8%a7%e0%b8%99%e0%b9%89/
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:46 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

203. ͢͹աɵ

׹ѹԪҡɵ¡ԡâ鹷¹þç 4 Դ





ͼ : ͢Ԫҡ͹ɵû

͢͹աɵë觻Сͺ仴ᾷ ѡԷʵ йѡԪҡҢ ͧôҹǴ ͧäͧ ͢ɵá ŧ׹ѹԪҡɵûС¡ԡâ鹷¹աӨѴѵپת 4 Դ վ. ⺿ҹ. .⵿. ͹ѹ 22 ԧҤ ѹش·СͺèеͧաɵҢ鹷¹


ѧҡդ͹ǢͧСͺաɵ״ҡâ鹷¹աɵ͡ա 2 ҡԪҡɵë觴ѵѹ¡ɵõ ...ѵѹ͹حҵѹªԴö鹷¹

͢͹աɵѹŧ¡ͧ͡Ԫҡɵ ¹ᾷѵ ɵó ҤԪǪʵ ᾷʵ Է¢͹ ¡ͧԪҡɵ зǧɵˡó¡ԡâ鹷¹աӨѴѵپתվçҡش 4 Դ վ. ⺿ҹ. . ⵿. Шҡš֡Ҿմѧդ繾٧ҡ Ҿû Ѱԡ » ͧҡվç ѵ ǡѺš÷ͧ㹻 .Ҿ 㨡س Ҹóآʵ ԷҪѯغҪҹ 辺շ 4 Դ ռ㹡Ŵӹǹŧѵپת § þɴѧŧӵ¹觨˵ԴкҴͧŧѵپת



駹 ᾷѵ ѧ¡ͧաúѧѺ ...ѵѹ ..2551 ҧ觤Ѵ ա״ҡâ鹷¹աӨѴѵپת͡ա 2 ʹͧ͢Сͺ ҹҧ ͧѧ ŢҸԡŹԸͼԴ¼šǨͧӹѡҹҸóآ .§辺Ҽ 60% ǨաɵõҧʹдѺʹ«觹ҨǹǢͧѺ÷

ѧ鹡ѭҷ˵㹡äǺ ù ¡ԡշѹ¤èӤѭѺзǧɵ ͧ͢üҡ¡ͧзǧɵûٻкäǺ ù ¡ԡաӨѴѵپתѹǴ µͧԴ¢šâ鹷¹բͧСѵѹ ͹ءêشҧ Һҧ

駹黯ԺѵԵԤѰ 2552 к ͹ûСȢ鹷¹ѵѹ·ҧɵ÷ء˹§ҹǢͧԴ¢鹵͹â鹷¹ ТŷСͺþԨóǹ·Һ͹þԨó Դ¤Ӫᨧ˵ؼŻСͺþԨóѺѧԴ ͹СҪԨҹມҴ” ¡ͧ件֧Ѱ觼ѡѹԴͧ͡äͧͨʹѺʹع㹡еǨͺзǧɵõਵͧѰ٭ͧ ҡͧüҡôԹâͧ˹§ҹҪôԹͺ¡¨оԨóҿͧͧµ

ҧҹ¹ ѡ ҹҹ ŹԸԡèѴä͢ç¹ǹ .ä Ҥʹ׹ѹ ¡ԡâ鹷¹þɷ 4 ԴзɵáС ͧҡաӨѴѵپתա繨ӹǹҡö᷹ôѧ зӤѭ͢ç¹ǹ㹨ѧѴäöѲҷҧ͡÷ӹҷ᷺ͧաӨѴŧ ¡֡ҤͧŧŧШѴк÷ӹҷѡҤҡ·ҧҾ



ʹ͹ºաɵõѰ :
ѭաɵ÷觼šзآҾͧ ɵá м繻ѭ˭дѺԡĵͧ ѭҴѧѧ觼šз͡͡ԹɵռšзҾѡɳʹ·ҧâͧҧӤѭ ѧҧ ҾûǨաɵõҧ㹼ѡмͧ٧شººѺءȷ͡ѧû ҳ͡ѡмͧµӡһ ӡҨչ 29 еӡҵáջҳ 46 繵

ҡõǨʹͧɵá÷ǻ ͹ зǧҸóآɵá÷ѺաӨѴѵپתдѺ§ʹ٧ҡӴѺ ¼šõǨͻ 2550 ٧ͺ 40 繵 ٧鹡ǡⴴһ 2540 ֧ͧ

㹢ǡѹ仡Ѻ¨ҡŵҧͧաӨѴѵپת赡ҧ㹼ѡ дѺӡкҧҨ٧ɵáô« ҧ ӹѡҹҸóآѧѴ§Ǩʹͧ㹨ѧѴ§ͻ 2552 ռ֧ 61 繵 ѺաɵдѺʹ

֡ҢͧʶҺѹԨԷʵآҾ Է§ѧաɵʹҡáդѹẺѹѺдѺ´դѹѺþѲʵԻѭ (Asawasinsopon et al, 2006) 仡ҹѧҷááʹɵáС͹çҡôҷɵáö֧ 9.8 (Bowkowski et al., 2011) 㹢з硹ѡ¹ 12-13 յǨա⹿࿵.շ´.٧ ¾з硷Ҫվɵµç (Panuwet et al., 2009) дѺǨ٧ҷ§ҹͧѰ (NHANES, 2001-2) ѹ (GerES IV, 20012002) ֧ 3

仡ҹѧ㹡ɵáмѺաӨѴѵپתªԴǡѹռŵآҾ ҷ ᵡѡͧþѹء觷Դ§͡Դä 駹 ɵáդ§͡ ٧Ҽ㹾鹷ɵá 3.4 ٧Ҽ֧ͧ 6.4 (Ծó Ф 2549)

ŢͧաӨѴѵپתҧҧ ˵آͧѭä ԴԢͧ ѹء кҷ仨֧šзк׺ѹͧ ѧҡʶԵѵҡõ¢ͧ·ռªԵäҧǴǨ˵ءõѹѺ˹ ᫧˹˵ءõ·Դҡäʹ ʹʹ ֧غѵ˵


ʹ͵Ѱ :
1. Ԫҡɵ зǧɵˡó¡ԡâ鹷¹աӨѴѵپתվçҡش 4 Դ վ. . ⵿. Ф⺿ҹ (Ҵҹ). ·ѹ ͧҡȵҧ ӹǹҡ Ҿû Ѱԡ »ͧҡվç ѵ Ǵ

2. ԹúѧѺ ...ѵѹ ..2551 ҧ觤Ѵ ա״ҡâ鹷¹աӨѴѵپת͡ա 2 ʹͧ͢Сͺ

3. ͧԴ¢šâ鹷¹բͧСѵѹ ͹ءêشҧ Һҧ 駹黯ԺѵԵԤѰ 2552 к ͹ûСȢ鹷¹ѵѹ·ҧɵ÷ء˹§ҹǢͧԴ¢鹵͹â鹷¹ ТŷСͺþԨóǹ·Һ͹þԨó Դ¤Ӫᨧ˵ؼŻСͺþԨóѺѧԴ ͹СҪԨҹມҴ”

4. ٻкСõԴšзͧ µͧѴʶԵԡ è˹ СдѺӺ ѧѴ дѺ ԹдѺ㹡§ ШѴʶԵԼѺ·дѺͧдѺҵµͧ§ҹŵͤѰҸó蹷ء

ʹ㹡èѴաӨѴѵپת 繢ʹдѺ鹷ҧ繷ش㹡ҧкɵ÷ʹ 繡äͧªͧɵáü ١ҹͧ Ѻ鹿ҾѡɳͧԹҼѡ ҡ仾 ѹ




http://www.biothai.net/node/9667
Ѻ仢ҧ
ʴǹǢͧҪԡ 觢ǹ
kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 9:56 am    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

204. ѡԪҡʹѰաӨѴѵپת 3 Դ


õͧ վºѹعç 觼ŵкԷ §Դä

"ѡԪҡ ʸ." ʹѰǺաӨѴѵپת 3 Դ ˹йһ ѧ»ȡ˹õͧ վºѹعç 觼šзкԷ §͡Դä

..Ҿ ó ҨШӤѪʵ Է¢͹ ҼšԨ "šзآҾҡɵ ҡ 3 Դ Parathion Methyl, EPN, Endosulfan" շ 3 Դ վºѹѧ 觼šзкԷ ռŵ͡¹ŧͧչ §͡ԴäФԴԢͧժԵ ѧ ҵá˹㹻١ҹ˹ٷͧ »ȷšСõͧ

" Parathion Methyl ӨѴѵپת㹶ͧ Ѩغѹ㹭 Թⴹ ԻԹ ѧ ᷹ 㹨չӡѴ㹾תѡ عèչ ѰѴշٵѡɳСҨԴѹç EPN ӨѴ˹͹ͽ˹͹ӵ鹢⾴ 1987 Сѧ١Ԩó㹡ҪԡҾû () ǹ Endosulfan շӨѴŧѵپת㹽 С" ..Ҿ

ҧþó آѲ ҹҹԪҡ͡ûٻкآҾ 㹷ЪѪآҾ觪ҵ ͻ 2546 ѹѹ¢ͧѵվɴҹɵ÷յآҾͧɵá 仨зǴդعç ֧蹢ʹԧºµѰ͡Сùշҧɵ繡ûͧɵáüǧ ʹͻԺѵԧ㹧ҹѪآҾШӻ 2547 觨ШѴҧѹ 8-9 ѹ¹ ʻ.ʹѰŹͧ¡â鹷¹շվç٧ 3 Դ շͧ

آ ǧ͡ ͧǺʴءɵ Ԫҡɵ зǧɵˡó ҹաʹ餳Сѵѹ ջѴзǧصˡ繻иҹ ѹ 13 Ȩԡ¹ ͢鹷¹շ 3 Դ յͧ ...ѵѹ ..2535 ¶֧աüԵ ͡ 㹤ͺͧ ͧҡúҧҹ è 3 Դ ֧ͧҧþԨóҢͧС Ҩػ

ªǹ ѵ ʹյ͸ԺաԪҡɵ ҵá㹡ŴԡըӡѴѵپתҡʹ ҵáôҹաùҡ Тй ѰչáӨѴѵپת ǡѹաʹѺʹعԨоѲҪѳ跴᷹աӨѴѵپת



http://www.biothai.net/news/4166
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kimzagass




: 14/07/2009
ͺ: 10967

ͺͺ: 11/08/2011 6:44 pm    ͡з: ͺзͧ¤Ӿٴ(quote)

⾴˹Ǿѹ





.Ե Ҿ ѡԪҡɵêӹҭþ ٹԨ¾ת¹ҷ Ԫҡɵ ⾴˹١ѹ¹ҷ 84-1 ;ѹ CNW 80 Դҡüҧ¾ѹ CNW4305(S)2-B-42-B-B 觵ҹҹäҹӤҧ Ѻ¾ѹѺĪ (S) 2-B-B-14-B-B-80-1-1-B-B-B 繾ѹ⾴˹ǾͧʪҵҹդسҾ˹ǹ ·ѡԨѴ͡¾ѹ ӡû١ͺŧººͧ ººѺѹҵðҹ ѧ١ºº㹷ͧл١ͺѹɵá㹾鹷Ҥ˹ Ҥҧ Ҥѹ͡§˹Ҥ Żҡ ɵáդ֧ѺѡҾͧ⾴˹١ѹ

.Եա ٹԨ¾ת¹ҷ觼Ե紾ѹ⾴˹١¹ҷ 84-1 ͧѺͧâͧɵá¡˹ҤҨ˹š 180 ҷ 觶١ҢͧҤ͡ ТйҧѴ͡л١ͺ⾴˹١ѹ շբ բ-ǧ ǧ駽ѡ Ҵ 3 բҧ˹ Ԫҡɵè⾴˹١ѹѡҾա¡ 2 ѹ

ʹ㨢ǡѺ ⾴˹١ѹ¹ҷ 84-1 öͺ ٹԨ¾ת¹ҷ . 0-5640-5080-1 Ҫ.



http://www.watnongmuang.com/news/detail.asp?id=2439
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